Maritime Hammock Habitats


     

Maritime hammocks, also known as maritime forests, tropical hammocks or coastal hammocks, are characterized as narrow bands of forest that develop almost exclusively on stabilized backdunes of barrier islands, inland of primary dunes and scrub. Maritime forests occur discontinuously along the entire Atlantic coast of the United States, interrupted by natural features such as inlets and bays, and anthropogenic activities such as coastal development and agriculture. Adjacent maritime forests tend to be vegetatively similar to one another, but overall vegetation profiles change with latitude. Florida, which has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States, has approximately 468,000 acres (Bellis 1995) of barrier islands, with maritime forests occupying the highest, most stable areas of these islands. The present location and extent of today’s maritime forests were established approximately 5000 years ago, becoming stabilized as sea level rise declined from 0.3 m to 0.1 m per century (Bellis 1995).

Generally dominated by species of broad-leaved evergreen trees and shrubs, maritime hammocks are climax communities influenced heavily by salt spray. Soils are predominantly composed of either sand or peat. Sandy soils are more common along forested dune ridges, while peat is more common among interdune swales and wetlands (Bellis 1995). Chapman (1976) described the progress of sandy soil formation and dune stabilization through four stages: embryo dunes, yellow dunes, gray dunes, and mature, vegetated dunes. Embryo dunes are formed by newly deposited sands accreting on beaches. Over time, sea oats and other coastal plants may colonize the dune and increase its stability. Once this occurs, the dune is called a yellow dune. Gray dunes are characterized by the presence of woody species and shrubs. At this stage, a soil microfauna, consisting largely of mycorrhizae has developed, and organic material from dead leaves and stems begins to accumulate in the substrata. Should these gray dunes remain stable over long periods of time, the climax community of a maritime forest develops. Mature vegetated dunes are characterized by distinct soil profiles: an upper horizon consisting of leaf litter and twigs; a deeper, ashy white horizon that results from leeching of organic materials deeper into the soil; and beneath this, a tan or orange horizon which receives substances leeched from above.

Many factors influence whether particular species will be successful colonizers of the maritime forest. Strong winds, low nutrients, unpredictable supplies of freshwater, erosion, sand-blasting, storm exposure, sand migration, and overwash from the ocean during storm events, are all major influences; however, tolerance to salt spray has been found to be the principal factor that controls vegetative cover in maritime forests (Oosting and Billings 1942, Boyce 1954, Proffitt 1977, Seneca and Broome 1981). Trees closest to the ocean are subject to onshore winds carrying sand and salt spray, which acts not only to prune terminal buds in the canopy top, but also encourages growth of lateral buds, producing over time, the familiar windswept shape of maritime forest canopies. Streamlining of the canopy profile assists growth of maritime forests in several ways. First, the windswept profile of the maritime forest canopy helps to deflect winds up and over the forest, preventing trees from being uprooted during intense storms. Second, dense canopies provide shelter to understory plants and protect the understory from large temperature fluctuations, reducing warming of the soil during the day, and preventing heat loss at night. Third, because trees on the windward edges of the forest show increased growth in their lateral buds, they are somewhat denser overall than more interior trees. As winds blow across the dense canopy, salt spray is deposited. Interior trees are thus protected from the effects of salt spray by the windward trees. This feature allows trees in the interior forest to assume characteristic heights and growth patterns resembling those of mainland forests.

Fire is also considered an "organizer" of forest cover patterns on barrier islands in Florida (Bellis 1995), and has long been a traditional agricultural tool for maintaining open areas, improving grazing lands, and eliminating pest species. Fire characteristics differ between oak-dominated hammocks, and pine-dominated hammocks. In oak forests, a dense evergreen canopy is usually coupled with a sparse, shade-tolerant understory and a somewhat moist litter layer. In pine forests, dense understory vegetation is coupled with a tall, sparse canopy, and significantly drier soils. Thus, fires in pine forests are likely to have a large fuel source close to the ground, resulting in the increased likelihood of intense crown fires. Conversely, oak forests have less fuel at ground level due to a sparsely grown understory. When fire occurs, oak forests tend to smolder close to the ground, consequently making intense crown fires more rare. An examination of fire temperatures in pine vs. oak forests illustrates these characteristics. A study by Williamson and Black (1981) documented that during a fire, air temperatures from the seedling zone to approximately 0.5 m above the soil in pine forests averaged 290° C, while oak forests averaged 175° C. This is significant because pines are often considered to be inferior long-term competitors to oaks. However, Williamson and Black (1981) concluded that maximum temperatures during fires in mixed forests were high enough to eliminate oaks from an area entirely. Thus, even though pines may be inferior competitors to oaks, they may gain competitive advantage over oaks in areas where fires occur.

Maritime forests also have distinctive hydrological features that affect a barrier island’s natural communities, as well as help determine whether development can be sustained. Rainfall is generally the only source of fresh water on barrier islands, and the maritime forest community acts as the primary watershed. Precipitation entering the watershed is rapidly drawn deep into a freshwater lens, which floats above the denser salt water in the permeable sediments beneath barrier islands. A counter-flow is established at the area of contact between fresh and salt water, allowing freshwater at the periphery of the lens to seep upward to the surface and into the ocean or lagoon. Hydrological models show that under ideal conditions, the freshwater lens on a barrier island contains approximately 40 meters of freshwater for each meter of free water table above mean sea level (Ward 1975). Water in the lens is generally fairly low in salts (Proffitt 1977), in spite of the fact that salt spray is a major ecological influence. However, excessive pumping of freshwater from the lens for residential and commercial purposes can lead to loss of the hydrostatic head in the freshwater lens, which could, in turn, increase the rate of salt water intrusion into surface waters on the island (Ward 1975, Winner 1975, 1979; Bellis 1995).

Beyond effective water management, there are a variety of other development considerations regarding maritime forest communities, with habitat fragmentation perhaps being the largest issue. Because maritime forests occur on the most stable areas of barrier islands, they are attractive building sites. Clearing lots for houses involves disturbing or destroying most, if not all, the natural vegetative cover to make space for homes, parking areas, drainage fields, and septic systems. Following construction, native vegetation is often replaced by lawns and ornamental shrubs, many of which are exotic. Another issue regarding the development of barrier islands is road construction. Generally, at least one main road is constructed along the entire length of a barrier island, above the dune ridge at the perimeter of maritime forests, to permit easy access to beaches. Other roads are built laterally to the trunk road for access to developments and private residences. While roads themselves may minimally impact existing forests, they do threaten their growth patterns and species composition because opening the forest canopy allows increased salt penetration to the forest interior. Several studies have confirmed that road building on barrier islands affects salt transport patterns into the interior of maritime forests (Eaton 1979, Seneca and Broome 1981). In these studies, floristic composition, tree viability and canopy height remained nearly constant along the ocean-side perimeter of maritime forests where newly established roads had been constructed. However, along the bay-side of the forests, it was observed that significant die back due to increased salt penetration occurred. Over the 4 years of the study, 57% of the original above-ground vegetation died within 2.5 to 3 m from the bayside edge of the forests, with the most severely affected areas showing complete elimination of the forest canopy. However, die-back in trees was observed to have ceased after approximately 27 months, with 43% of trees able to recover to some degree, showing signs of basal sprouting, stump sprouting, and sprouting from underground stems and roots. At the end of the 4 year study, a new but somewhat lower canopy had begun to develop.

The vegetative composition of maritime forests is diverse, and depends heavily on prevailing physical conditions. Greller (1980) mapped the distribution of maritime forests in Florida, and determined that the upland broad-leaved forests of barrier islands fell into 3 major types: temperate broad-leaved forest, also known as evergreen forest; southern mixed hardwood forest; and tropical forest. Temperate broad-leaved forests are dominated by Quercus virginiana (live oak), and Sabal palmetto (sabal palm) communities. Southern mixed hardwood forests are dominated by Magnolia grandiflora (Southern magnolia), Ilex opaca (American holly), Cornus florida (flowering dogwood), Carya glabra (pignut hickory), and Fagus grandiflora (American beech). Tropical forests are dominated by both evergreen and deciduous species such as Mastichodendron foetidissimum (mastic), Eugenia spp. (stoppers), Lysiloma latisiliqua (wild tamarind), and Bersera simaruba (gumbo limbo).

Many different animal species inhabit Florida’s barrier island communities. In maritime hammocks, insects, small mammals, reptiles and birds dominate the fauna. Common inhabitants include wading birds such as great blue herons (Ardea herodias), great egrets (Casmerodius albus), snowy egrets (Egretta thula), little blue herons (Egretta caerulea), tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor), night herons (Nycticorax spp.), brown pelicans (Pelicanus occidentalis), various ducks, warblers, and others. Birds of prey such as red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), Cooper’s hawks (Accipiter cooperii), sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), and bald eagles (Haliaetus leucocephalus), also utilize hammocks for feeding, roosting and nesting. Small mammals such as eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus palustris), mice (Mus spp.), Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus); and larger mammals such as river otters (Lontra canadensis), and wild boar (Sus scrofa), may thrive in hammock habitats. Reptiles include softshelled turtles (Frionyx ferox), gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus), cottonmouth snakes (Agkistodon piscivorus), southern black racers (Coluber constrictor priapus), Atlantic saltmarsh snakes (Nerodia spp.), eastern diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus adamantus), indigo snakes (Drymarchon corais couperi), as well as a variety of skinks and lizards which prey on the abundant insect, frog, and small mammal population.

Click a highlighted link to read more about individual species:

Species Name:

Common Name:

Community Type:

Maritime Hammock Plants:

   

Acer rubrum

Red maple

Canopy, Volusia to Indian River Counties; maritime swamp forest, maritime shrub swamp,

Acrostichum aureum

Golden leather fern

Herbaceous1, maritime swamp foret, maritime shrub swamp

Ampelopsis arborea

Peppervine

Understory vine1 of maritime evergreen forest,

Amyris elemifera

Sea torchwood

Understory2 of maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Ardisia escallonioides

Marbleberry, marlberry

Understory3 of maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Aristida stricta

Bottlebrush, threeawn

Herbaceous1, maritime evergreen forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Arundinaria gigantea

Switchcane

Understory Volusia County, maritime deciuous forest, maritime swamp forest

Asplenium platyneuron

Ebony spleenwort

herbaceous2, maritime evergreen forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest

Azolla caroliniana

Carolina mosquito fern

interdune ponds1

Baccharis halmifolia

Sea myrtle, groundsel tree

Understory1, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Berchemia scadens

Alabama supplejack, rattan vine

wetland vine1, maritime evergreen forest, maritime swamp forest, maritime shrub swamp

Bignonia capreolata

Crossvine

Understory vine2, Volusia County, maritime evergreen forest

Blechnum serrulatum

Blechnum fern, swamp fern

Wet herbaceous1, maritime swamp forest, maritime shrub swamp

Boehmeria cylindrica

False nettle, bog hemp

Wet herbaceous1, maritime swamp forest

Bursera simaruba

Gumbo-limbo

Canopy3, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Callicarpa americana

American beautyberry

Understory3, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Campsis radicans

Trumpet creeper

Understory vine2, maritime evergreen forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest

Carex spp.

Sedge

herbaceous2, maritime swamp forest

Carpinus caroliniana

Bluebeech, American hornbeam

Understory2, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Carya glabra

Pignut hickory

Canopy2, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest

Ceratophyllum muricatum australe

Prickly hornwart

Interdune pond, Brevard county

Chasmanthium laxum

Slender woodoats

Herbaceous2, maritime evergreen forest

Chiococca alba

Snowberry

Understory vine3, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, maritime swamp forest, maritime shrub swamp

Cnidoscolus stimulosus

Finger rot

Understory3, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Coccoloba diversifolia

Pigeon plum, tie tongue

Canopy3, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Coccoloba uvifera

Sea grape

Canopy1, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Cornus foemina

Swamp dogwood

Understory2, maritime swamp forest, maritime shrub swamp

Dahlbergia ecastophyllum

Coinvine

Understory vine3, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime swamp forest

Dichanthelium commutatum

Variable witchgrass

Herbaceous1, maritime evergreen forest

Erythrina herbacea

Eastern coralbean, Redcardinal

Understory3, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Eugenia foetida

Spanish stopper

Canopy3, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Euphorbia ipecacuanhae

American euphorbia

Herbaceous, coastal fringe sandhill, wetlands

Exothea paniculata

Inkwood

Canopy3, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest

Ficus aurea

Strangler fig

Canopy3, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Galium hispidulum

Coastal bedstraw

Understory2, maritime deciduous forest

Galium pilosum

Hairy bedstraw

Herbaceous2 Volusia County, maritime evergreen forest

Gaylussacia dumosa

Dwarf huckleberry

Understory1, coastal fringe sandhill

Gaylussacia frondosa

Blue huckleberry

Understory Volusia County, maritime deciduous forest

Gelsemium sempervirens

Yellow jessamine, Carolina jessamine

Understory vine2, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest

Ilex glabra

Inkberry, Gallberry

Understory1, coastal fringe sandhill

Ilex opaca

American Holly

Understory2, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest

Ilex vomitoria

Yaupon

Understory2, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Juniperus virginiana

Eastern redcedar

Understory2, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest

Liquidambar styraciflua

Sweetgum

Canopy2, maritime deciduous forest, maritime swamp forest

Magnolia virginiana

Sweetbay

Understory1, coastal fringe evergreen forest, maritime swamp forest

Metopium toxiferum

Poisonwood

Canopy Martin County, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Mitchella repens

Twinberry, partridgeberry

Herbaceous, Volusia and Martin Counties, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest, maritime swamp forest

Morus ruba

Red mulberry

Canopy1, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, maritime swamp forest

Myrcianthus fragrans

West Indian nakedwood

Understory4, threatened species,

Myrica cerifera

Wax myrtle

Understory3 of maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest, coastal fringe sandhill, swamp forest,

Nephrolepis biserrata

Sword fern

Herbaceous Martin County, threatened, maritime swamp forest, maritime shrub swamp

Nephrolepis exaltata

Boston fern

Herbaceous3, maritime swamp forest, maritime shrub swamp, coastal fringe sandhill

Nyssa sylvatica

Swamp tupelo

Canopy, Volusia and St. Lucie Counties, coastal fringe sandhill, maritime swamp forest

Octoea (Nectandra) coriaceae

Lancewood

Canopy1, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Osmanthus americanus

Wild olive

understory2, maritime evergreen forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Osmunda cinnamomea

Cinnamon fern

Herbaceous1, maritime swamp forest, maritime shrub swamp

Osmunda regalis

Royal fern

Herbaceous1, maritime swamp forest, maritime shrub swamp

Palafoxia feayi Feay's palafox Herbaceous1, maritime swamp forest, maritime shrub swamp

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Virginia creeper

Understory vine3, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Persea borbonia

Redbay

Canopy1, maritime evergreen forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest, maritime swamp forest

Physalis spp.

Ground cherry

Understory3, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Pisonia aculeata

Devil’s claw

Understory vine3 Martin County, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Prunus caroliniana

Carolina laurelcherry

Understory1, maritime evergreen forest

Psychotria nervosa

Shiny-leaved wild coffee

Understory3, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Psychotria sulzneri

Soft-leaved wild coffee

Understory3, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Pteridium aquilinum

Bracken fern

Herbaceous1, maritime deciduous forest

Quercus geminata

Sand live oak

Canopy1, maritime evergreen forest, coastal fringe forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Quercus incana

Bluejack oak

Understory, Brevard County, maritime evergreen forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Quercus laevis

Turkey oak

Canopy, Brevard and Martin Counties, maritime evergreen forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Quercus laurifolia

Laurel oak

Canopy1, maritime evergreen forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Quercus myrtifolia

Myrtle oak

Canopy2, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest

Quercus nigra

Water oak

Canopy, Volusia and Indian River Counties, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest,

Quercus virginiana

Live oak

Canopy4, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest, coastal fringe sandhill,

Randia aculeata

White indigoberry

Understory1, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest, maritime swamp forest

Rhus copallina

Shining sumac, dwarf sumac

Understory3, maritime deciduous forest

Rhus copallinum

Winged sumac

Understory1, maritime deciduous forest,

Rhynchospora spp.

Beaksedge

Herbaceous1, coastal fringe sandhill

Rivina humilis

Rougeplant, bloodberry

Understory3, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Rumex hastatulus

Sorrell

Herbaceous3, maritime forest, maritime swamp forest, maritime shrub swamp

Sabal minor

Dwarf palmetto

Understory, Volusia and St. Lucie Counties, maritime evergreen forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest

Sabal palmetto

Cabbage palm

Canopy1, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Sassafras albidum

Sassafras

Understory, Volusia County, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Saururus cernuus

Lizard’s Tail

Herbaceous1, maritime swamp forest

Schizachyrium (Andropogon) scoparium

Little bluestem

Understory2, maritime deciduous forest

Serenoa repens

Saw palmetto

Understory1, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Sideroxylon tenax

Tough bumelia, tough bully

Canopy2 or understory3, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Sideroxylon foetidissimum

False mastic

Canopy, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Smilax spp.

Greenbriar

Understory1, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe evergreen forest, maritime shrub swamp

Solidago spp.

Goldenrod

Herbaceous2, maritime deciduous forest

Stipulicida setacea

Pineland scalypink

Herbaceous1, coastal fringe evergreen forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Stylisma patens

Coastalplain dawnflower

Herbaceous1, Volusia County, coastal fringe sandhill

Swietenia mahogani

Mahogany

Hardwood canopy3, rare in IRL, Maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Taxodium distichum

Bald cypress

Wetland canopy1, maritime swamp forest

Thelypteris palustris var. pubescens

Marsh fern

Herbaceous1, maritime shrub swamp, interdune ponds

Toxicodendron radicans

Eastern poison ivy

Understory vine1, maritme shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, maritime swamp forest, maritime shrub swamp

Vaccinium arboreum

Sparkleberry, farkleberry

Understory2, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe sandhill

Vaccinium corymbosum

Highbush blueberry

Wet understory, Volusia County, maritime swamp forest

Vaccinium fuscatum

Highbush blueberry

Wet understory Volusia County, maritime swamp forest

Vaccinium stamineum

Deerberry

Understory1, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe sandhill, maritime swamp forest

Vitis rotundifolia

Muscadine grape

Understory vine1, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, coastal fringe evergreen, maritime swamp forest

Woodwardia areolata

Netted chain fern

Wet herbaceous1, maritime swamp forest, maritime shrub swamp

Woodwardia virginica

Virginia chain fern

Wetland herbaceous1, maritime swamp forest, maritime shrub swamp

Yucca aloifoilia

Spanish bayonet

Understory1, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest, coastal fringe sandhill, coastal fringe evergreen forest

Zamia pumila

Coontie, Florida arrowroot

Understory2, maritime evergreen forest, maritime deciduous forest

Zanthoxylum clava-herculis

Hercules club

Canopy2, maritime shrub, maritime evergreen forest

Maritime Hammock Animals:

 

 

Accipiter cooperii

Cooper’s hawk

 

Accipiter striatus

Sharp-shinned hawk

 

Actitis macularia

Spotted sandpiper

 

Agkistrodon piscivorus

Cottonmouth

 

Aix sponosa

Wood duck

 

Anolis carolinensis carolinensis

Green anole

 

Anolis sagrei

Brown anole

 

Ardea herodias

Great blue heron

 

Aythya collaris

Ring-necked duck

 

Bubulcus ibis

Cattle egret

 

Bucephala albeola

Bufflehead

 

Buteo lineatus

Red-shouldered hawk

 

Butorides virescens

Green heron

 

Cardinalis cardinalis

Cardinal

 

Cardisoma guanhumi

Land crab, blue land crab

 

Ardea alba

Great egret

 

Cathartes aura

Turkey vulture

 

Coccyzus americanus

Yellow-billed cuckoo

 

Colaptes auratus

Common flicker

 

Coluber constrictor paludicola

Everglades racer

Cape Canaveral region and Everglades

Coluber constrictor priapus

Southern black racer

Throughout Florida

Corvus brachyrhynchos

Common crow

 

Corvus ossifragus

Fish crow

 

Crotalus adamanteus

Eastern Diamondback rattlesnake

 

Cryptotis parva

Least shrew

 

Dendroica discolor

Prairie warbler

 

Dendroica petechia

Yellow warbler

 

Diadophis punctatus punctatus

Southern ring-neck snake

 

Didelphis virginiana

Virginia oppossum

 

Drymarchon corais couperi

Indigo snake

 

Dumetella carolinensis

Gray catbird

 

Egretta caerulea

Little blue heron

 

Egretta thula

Snowy egret

 

Egretta tricolor

Louisiana heron, tricolored egret

 

Elaphe guttata guttata

Corn snake

 

Elaphe obsoleta quadrivittata

Yellow rat snake, chicken snake

Peninsular Florida

Eumeces inexpectatus

Southeastrn five-lined skink

 

Felis catus

Domestic cat, house cat

 

Frionyx ferox

Softshell turtle

 

Fulica americana

American coot

 

Gallinago gallinago

Common snipe

 

Gallinula chloropus

Common gallinule

 

Geothylpis frichas

Common yellowthroat

 

Gopherus polyphemus

Gopher tortoise

 

Hemidactylu garnoti

Indo-Pacific gecko

 

Hyla squirella

Squirrel treefrog

 

Lampropeltis getulus

Eastern kingsnake

 

Lasiurus borealis

Red bat

 

Lontra canadensis

River otter

 

Lophodytes cucullatus

Hooded merganser

 

Magaceryle alcyon

Belted kingisher

 

Mus musculus

House mouse

 

Myiarchus crinitus

Great crested flycatcher

 

Neofiber alleni

Roundtailed muskrat

 

Nerodia clarkii taeniata

Atlantic saltmash snake

 

Nerodia fasciata taeniata

Atlantic saltmarsh snake

 

Nycticorax nycticorax

Black-crowned night heron

 

Nycticorax violaceus

Yellow-crowned night heron

 

Odocoileus virginianus

White-tailed deer

 

Opheodrys aestivus

Rough green snake

 

Ophisaurus compressus

Island glass lizard

 

Osteopilius septentrionalis

Cuban treefrog

 

Otus asio

Screech owl

 

Pandion haliaetus

Osprey

 

Peromyscus gossypinus palarius

Cotton mouse

 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus

Rufous-sided towhee

 

Podilymbus podiceps

Pied-billed grebe

 

Procyon lotor

Raccoon

 

Rallus elegans

King rail

 

Rana sphenocephala

Southern leopard frog

 

Rattus norvegicus

Norway rat

 

Sciurus carolinensis

Gray squirrel

 

Scolopax minor

American woodcock

 

Sus scrofa

Wild boar

 

Sylvilagus floridanus

Eastern cottontail

 

Sylvilagus palustris

Marsh rabbit

 

Thryothorus palustris

Marsh wren

 

Turdus migratorius

American robin

 

Vireo griseus

White-eyed vireo

 

Vireo olivaceus

Red-eyed vireo

 

Zenaida macroura

Mourning dove

 

             1 Found throughout the IRL
            
2 Most common in Northern IRL, Volusia through Brevard Counties
            
3 Most common in Central/Southern IRL
            
4 Found from Cape Canaveral to Ft. Pierce Inlet; to south is replaced with
                tropical shrubs and trees


Further Reading:

Art, H., F.H. Bormann, G.K. Voigt, and G.M. Woodwell. 1974. Barrier island forest
     ecosystem: role of meteorological inputs. Science 184:60 – 62.

Bagur, J.D. 1978. Barrier islands of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the united States: an
     annotated bibliography. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service FWS/OBS – 77/56. 215 pp.

Barrick, W.E. 1973. Salt tolerant plants for Florida landscapes. Proceedings of the Florida
     State Horticultural Society 91:82 – 84.

Bellis, V.J. 1992. Floristic continuity among the maritime forests of the Atlantic coast of the
     United States. Pages 21-29 in: C.A. Cole and F.K. Turner, editors. Barrier island
     Ecology of the Mid-Atlantic Coast: A Symposium. U.S. Department of the Interior,
     National Park Service, Atlanta, GA.

Bellis, V.J. 1995. Ecology of maritime forests of the southern Atlantic coast: a community
     profile. Biological report 30, May 1995. National Biological Service, U.S. Department
     of the Interior. Washington, D.C. 89 pp.

Bellis, V.J. and C.E. Proffitt. 1976. Maritime forests. Pages 22 – 28 in: D. Brower, D.
     Frankenberg, and F. Parker, editors. Ecological Determinants of Coastal Area
     Management: Vol. 2. University of North Carolina Sea Grant Publication
     UNC-GS-76-05. 392 pp.

Bourdeau, P.F. an H.J. Oosting. 1959. The maritime live oak forest in North Carolina.
     Ecology 40:148-152.

Boyce, S.G. 1954. The salt spray community. Ecological Monographs 24:29-68.

Cockfield, B.A. J.B. Tormey, and D.M. Forsythe. 1980. Barrier island maritime forest.
     American Birds 34: 29.

Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golt, and E.T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands
     and deep water habitats of the United States. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
     FWS/OBS-79-31. 103 pp.

Davison, K. and S.P. Bratton. 1986. The vegetation history of Canaveral National
     Seashore, Florida. University of Georgia Institute of Ecology. Cooperative Park Studies
     Unit Technical Report 22. 75 pp.

Doutt, J.K. 1941. Wind pruning and salt spray as a factor in ecology. Ecology 22:195-196.

Eaton, T.E. 1979. Natural and artificially altered patterns of salt spray across a forested
     barrier island. Atmospheric Environment 13:705-709.

Gehlhausen, S. and M.G. Harper. 1998. Management of maritime communities for
     threatened and endangered species. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Construction
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Report by:  K. Hill, Smithsonian Marine Station
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