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Diatom Glossary

DIATOMS


Many microalgal groups, including diatoms, are in a state of taxonomic flux due to advances in optical science and, particularly, genetic analysis. Whereas in the 19th century diatoms were considered to consist of one family, by the mid-20th century they were assumed to be a single class, Bacillariophyceae, with two orders, Centrales and Pennales.

In 1990, the benchmark book ‘The Diatoms’ (Round et al. 1990) proposed three classes (Coscinodiscophyceae, Fragilariophyceae and Bacillariophyceae) with 11 subclasses and 45 orders. Based on a combination of morphology, ultrastructure, life history details and molecular genetics, Medlin and Kaczmarska (2004) emended the Coscinodiscophyceae and Bacillariophyceae of Round et al. (1990), and established a new class, Mediophyceae, which they proposed as phylogenetically based. This taxonomic arrangement has not been generally accepted as yet (Williams & Kociolek 2007, 2011; rebuttal by Medlin 2010; Theriot et al. 2009). One of the more controversial changes is the transfer of the order Thalassiosirales from Coscinodiscophyceae to Mediophyceae.


Figure 1. Valve view of the diatom, Biddulphia sp. (Mediophyceae). Scanning electron mircoscope (SEM) image by Paul Hargraves.


Figure 2. Valve view of the diatom, Mastogloia sp. (raphid Bacillariophyceae). SEM image by Paul Hargraves.


For the sake of organization, the diatoms are grouped in this inventory alphabetically within the classes following Medlin and Kaczmarska (2004), with no implications for strict phylogenetic relationships, and exclusive of order or family organization for which there is continual and considerable controversy. A substantial number of genera apportioned in these classes have yet to be analyzed by molecular genetic techniques, so their placement in classes here is based on their morphological affinities.


 
Figure 3. SEM images: top left: Chaetoceros sp. spore; top right: valve view of Cyclotella sp.; bottom: girdle view of Thalassiosira sp. All images by Paul Hargraves.

Figure 4. Live diatom images via compound light microscope, top left: Licmophora sp. (Photo by L. Holly Sweat); top right: Chaetoceros lorenzianus (Photo by Paul Hargraves); anbottom: Odontella sinensis (Photo courtesy of Kelli Zargiel, Florida Institute of Technology).

General Morphology Of a Diatom Cell

The entire diatom cell is called a frustule, with a cell wall of hydrated silicon dioxide (i.e. glass).  In its simplest form, it has three main components: two valves and a girdle, also called the cingulum.  The two valves are called the epivalve and the hypovalve.

Between the two valves, in most cases, are a varying number of partially or wholly circumferential siliceous bands, which combine to form the girdle or cingulum (G). If there are multiple girdle bands, the one closest to the valve is called the valvocopula; the other bands are called simply copulae, intercalary bands, or pleurae. The epivalve and its associated bands (Se + Ge) are called the epitheca (E); the hypovalve and its associated bands (Sh +Gh) are the hypotheca (H). The epitheca overlaps the hypotheca.  The upper surface of a valve (S) is often called a valve ‘face’; the sloping surface leading to the girdle bands is the mantle (m). The transition from valve face to mantle may be gradual or abrupt.

In the microscope, diatom cells may be seen, depending on their dimensions, either from the top (‘valve view’) or from the side (‘girdle view’). In a cell that is radially symmetrical (Figure 5A, so-called ‘centric’ diatoms), the width of a cell is the diameter (D). The distance from the epitheca surface through the frustule to the hypotheca surface is the pervalvar axis (P).

In a cell that is bilaterally symmetrical (Figure 5B, so-called ‘pennate’ diatoms), its length is called the apical axis (A) and the width is the transapical axis (T).  Detailed descriptions of diatom cell morphology are found in Round et al. (1990) and Hasle & Syvertsen (1997).

 
Figure 5A. Diagram of a centric diatom. Image modified from Cupp 1943.

Figure 5B. Diagram of a pennate diatom. Image modified from Cupp 1943.

 

References

Cupp, EE. 1943. Marine plankton diatoms of the west coast of North America. Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Univ. Calif. 5: 1-238.

Hasle, GR & EE Syvertsen. 1997. Marine Diatoms. In: CR Tomas (Ed.) Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. Academic Press. New York. 5-385.

Medlin, LK & I Kaczmarska. 2004. Evolution of the Diatoms: V. Morphological and cytological support for the major clades and a taxonomic revision. Phycologia 43: 245—270.

Round, FE, Crawford, RM & DG Mann. 1990. The Diatoms - Biology and morphology of the genera. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 760 pp.

Theriot, EC, Cannone, JJ, Gutell, RR & AJ Alverson. 2009. The limits of nuclear-encoded SSU rDNA for resolving the diatom phylogeny.Eur. J. Phycol. 44: 277—290.

Williams, DM & JP Kociolek. 2007. Pursuit of a natural classification of diatoms: History, monophyly and the rejection of paraphyletic taxa. Eur. J. Phycol. 42:313—319.

Williams, DM & JP Kociolek. 2011. An overview of diatom classification with some prospects for the future. In: Seckbach, J & P Kociolek (Eds.): The Diatom World. (Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology, 19), Springer Verlag, Duesseldorf. 580 pp.

 

IRL Diatoms:

The following list is composed of species that have been reported as present in the IRL system in refereed publications, and have been adjusted for taxonomic and nomenclatural changes; some require further verification.  Genera in literature records lacking an epithet have been deleted from this list.  Practically speaking, this is only fractionally complete – many diatom taxa have yet to be identified and verified.  For more information on the origin and validity of names, see: www.algaebase.org. Text and illustrations were prepared by Paul E. Hargraves, who acknowledges the advice of numerous other diatomists, particularly M Ashworth, AKSK Prasad, M Sullivan, and FAS Sterrenburg.

Many of the organisms in the following table are linked to their species profiles on the Encyclopedia of Life website. To view these profiles, click on the EOL logo to the right of the scientific name.

CLASS SCIENTIFIC NAME
Mediophyceae Amphitetras antediluvianum
Mediophyceae Arcocellulus mammifer
Mediophyceae Auliscus caelatus v. strigillata
Mediophyceae Auliscus pruinosus EOL
Mediophyceae Auliscus punctatus EOL
Mediophyceae Auliscus radiatus EOL
Mediophyceae Auliscus reticulatus EOL
Mediophyceae Auliscus sculptus v. rhipis
Mediophyceae Bacteriastrum comosum
Mediophyceae Bacteriastrum delicatulum EOL
Mediophyceae Bacteriastrum hyalinum EOL
Mediophyceae Bellerochea horologicalis EOL
Mediophyceae Biddulphia biddulphiana EOL
Mediophyceae Biddulphia tridens
Mediophyceae Cerataulina bicornis
Mediophyceae Cerataulina pelagica EOL
Mediophyceae Cerataulus smithii EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros aequatorialis EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros affinis EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros anastomosans EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros atlanticus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros brevis EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros cinctus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros coarctatus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros compressus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros costatus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros constrictus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros curvisetus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros dadayi
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros danicus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros debilis EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros decipiens EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros diadema EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros didymus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros didymus v. anglicus
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros diversus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros eibenii EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros laciniosus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceors lauderi
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros lorenzianus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros lorenzianus v. forceps
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros messanensis EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros minimus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros muelleri EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros neogracilis EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros pelagicus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros pendulus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros peruvianus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros protuberans EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros pseudocurvisetus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros simplex EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros socialis EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros subtilis EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros teres EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros tortissimus EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros vistulae EOL
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros wighami
Mediophyceae Chaetoceros willei EOL
Mediophyceae Climacodium frauenfeldianum EOL
Mediophyceae Cymatosira belgica EOL
Mediophyceae Cymatosira lorenziana EOL
Mediophyceae Discostella stelligera
Mediophyceae Ditylum brightwellii EOL
Mediophyceae Ditylum sol
Mediophyceae Eucampia cornuta EOL
Mediophyceae Eucampia zodiacus EOL
Mediophyceae Extubocellus spinifer
Mediophyceae Helicotheca tamesis EOL
Mediophyceae Hemiaulus hauckii EOL
Mediophyceae Hemiaulus membranaceus EOL
Mediophyceae Hemiaulus sinensis EOL
Mediophyceae Isthmia enervis EOL
Mediophyceae Lampriscus shadboltianum EOL
Mediophyceae Lithodesmium undulatum EOL
Mediophyceae Mastodiscus radiatus
Mediophyceae Minidiscus chilensis
Mediophyceae Minidiscus comicus EOL
Mediophyceae Minidiscus trioculatus
Mediophyceae Minutocellus polymorphus EOL
Mediophyceae Odontella aurita EOL
Mediophyceae Odontella aurita v. minuscule
Mediophyceae Odontella longicruris EOL
Mediophyceae Odontella mobiliensis EOL
Mediophyceae Odontella obtusa EOL
Mediophyceae Odontella regia EOL
Mediophyceae Odontella reticulata
Mediophyceae Odontella rhombus EOL
Mediophyceae Odontella sinensis *Non-native* EOL
Mediophyceae Planktoniella sol EOL
Mediophyceae Pleurosira laevis EOL
Mediophyceae Shionodiscus oestrupii v. venrickae EOL
Mediophyceae Skeletonema costatum EOL
Mediophyceae Skeletonema menzelii EOL
Mediophyceae Skeletonema tropicum EOL
Mediophyceae Terpsinöe americana EOL
Mediophyceae Terpsinöe musica EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira aestivalis EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira anguste-lineata EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira binata EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira decipiens EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira diporocyclus EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira eccentrica EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira exigua EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira gravida EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira hyalina EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira laevis
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira licea
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira lineata EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira livingstoniorum
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira lundiana EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira mala
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira minima EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira minuscula EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira nanolineata
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira profunda
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira proschkinae EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira punctigera
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira rotula EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira subtilis EOL
Mediophyceae Thalassiosira weissflogii EOL
Mediophyceae Triceratium bicorne
Mediophyceae Triceratium biquadratum
Mediophyceae Triceratium dubium EOL
Mediophyceae Triceratium favus EOL
Mediophyceae Triceratium favus f. quadrata
Mediophyceae Triceratium pentacrinus EOL
Mediophyceae Triceratium pentacrinus f. quadrata
Mediophyceae Trigonium alternans EOL
Mediophyceae Trigonium reticulum EOL
 
Coscinodiscophyceae Aulacodiscus argus EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Aulacoseira islandica EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Actinocyclus normanii EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Actinocyclus octonarius EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Actinocyclus octonarius v. crassus EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Actinocyclus octonarius v. tenellus EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Actinocyclus vestigulus
Coscinodiscophyceae Actinoptychus senarius EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Actinoptychus splendens EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Asterolampra marylandica
Coscinodiscophyceae Asteromphalus cleveanus
Coscinodiscophyceae Aulacoseira italica
Coscinodiscophyceae Azpeitia nodulifera
Coscinodiscophyceae Corethron hystrix EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Coscinodiscus centralis EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Coscinodiscus granii EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Coscinodiscus oculus-iridis EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Coscinodiscus perforatus EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Coscinodiscus radiatus EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Coscinodiscus wailesii *Non-native* EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Cyclotella atomus EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Cyclotella choctawhatcheeana EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Cyclotella meneghiniana EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Cyclotella  striata EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Cyclotella stylorum EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Dactyliosolen fragilissima
Coscinodiscophyceae Detonula pumila EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Discostella stelligera EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Eunotogramma laeve
Coscinodiscophyceae Guinardia cylindrus
Coscinodiscophyceae Guinardia delicatula EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Guinardia flaccida EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Guinardia striata EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Hyalodiscus scoticus EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Hyalodiscus subtilis EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Lauderia annulata EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Leptocylindrus danicus EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Leptocylindrus minimus EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Lithodesmium intricatum EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Lithodesmium undulatum EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Melosira lineata EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Melosira moniliformis EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Melosira nummuloides EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Melosira varians
Coscinodiscophyceae Neocalyptrella robusta EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Palmerina hardmaniana EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Paralia allisonii
Coscinodiscophyceae Paralia sulcata EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Podosira hormoides EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Podosira montagnei EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Podosira stelligera EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Proboscia alata EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Proboscia indica EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Pseudosolenia calcar-avis EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Rhizosolenia bergonii EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Rhizosolenia castracanei EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Rhizosolenia hebetata f. semispina EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Rhizosolenia setigera EOL
Coscinodiscophyceae Roperia tesselata
 
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Ardissonea fulgens EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Ardissonea pulcherrima
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Ardissonea robusta EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Asterionellopsis glacialis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Bleakeleya notata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Campylosira cymbelliformis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Catacombas gaillonii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Climacosphenia elongata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Cyclophora minor
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Delphineis surirella EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Delphineis surirella v. australis
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Dimeregramma minor EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Dimeregramma minor v. nana EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Falcula hyalina
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Fragilaria capucina v. mesolepta EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Fragilaria virescens EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Glyphodesmis williamsonii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Grammatophora gibberula EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Grammatophora marina EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Grammatophora marina v. tropica
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Grammatophora oceanica EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Grammatophora oceanica v. macilenta EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Grammatophora serpentina EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Hyalosynedra laevigata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Hyalosira interrupta EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Licmophora abbreviata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Licmophora abbreviata f. grunowii
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Licmophora debilis
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Licmophora ehrenbergii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Licmophora flabellata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Licmophora gracilis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Licmophora grandis
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Licmophora lyngbyei EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Licmophora paradoxa EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Licmophora remulus EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Lioloma elongatum
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Lioloma pacificum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Martyana martyi EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Neosynedra tortosa
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Opephora marina EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Opephora mutabilis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Opephora pacifica EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Opephora schwartzii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Plagiogramma interruptum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Plagiogramma pulchellum v. pygmaea EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Plagiogramma rhombicum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Plagiogramma staurophorum
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Plagiogrammopsis vanheurckii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Plagiogrammopsis wallichianum
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Podocystis adriaticum
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Protoraphis atlantica EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Psammodiscus nitidus EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Pseudohimantidium pacificum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Pteroncola inane EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Rhabdonema adriaticum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Rhabdonema arcuatum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Rhaphoneis amphiceros EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Rhaphoneis amphiceros v. gemmifera
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Rhaphoneis castracanei
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Rhaphoneis superba EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Staurosira construens
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Striatella unipunctata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Tabularia fasciculata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Tabularia parva
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Tabularia tabulata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Thalassionema frauenfeldii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Thalassionema nitzschioides EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Toxarium hennedyanum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Araphid Trachysphenia acuminata EOL
 
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Achnanthes brevipes EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Achnanthes brevipes v. angustata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Achnanthes brevipes v. parvula EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Achnanthes citronella EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Achnanthes curvirostrum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Achnanthes kuwaitensis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Achnanthes longipes EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Achnanthes manifera EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphicocconeis disculoides EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphipleura pellucida
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora angusta EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora angusta v. ventricosa EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora arenaria EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora caroliniana EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora coffaeformis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora costata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora decussata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora eunotia EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora marina EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora obtusa EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora ocellata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora ostrearia EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora proteoides EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora proteus EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora robusta EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora spectabilis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Amphora terroris EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Anomoeoneis sphaerophora v. sculpta EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Anorthoneis eurystoma EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Anorthoneis excentrica EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Anorthoneis hyalina EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Auricula complexa EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Bacillaria paxillifera EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Berkeleya micans EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Berkeleya rutilans EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Berkeleya scopulorum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Caloneis elongata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Caloneis excentrica EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Campylodiscus daemelianus EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Campylodiscus innominatus EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Capartogramma crucicula EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Climaconeis lorenzii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Climaconeis scalaris
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Cocconeis brittanica EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Cocconeis convexa EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Cocconeis disculoides EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Cocconeis heteroidea EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Cocconeis krammeri
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Cocconeis pellucida EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Cocconeis placentula EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Cocconeis placentula v. euglypta EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Cocconeis pseudomarginata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Cocconeis scutellum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Cocconeis scutellum v. stauroneiformis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Cocconeis woodii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Cylindrotheca closterium EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Denticula subtilis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Denticula thermalis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Diadesmis contenta EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Diploneis bombus EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Diploneis crabro EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Diploneis gravelleana EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Diploneis gruendleri EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Diploneis interrupta EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Diploneis oblique
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Diploneis smithii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Diploneis suborbiculata
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Diploneis vacillans EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Diploneis weissflogii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Entomoneis alata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Entomoneis pulchra EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Epithemia sorex EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Fallacia amphipleuroides EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Fallacia forcipata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Fallacia hyalinula EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Fallacia litoricola EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Fallacia nummularia EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Frustulia asymmetrica EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Gomphonema acuminatum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Gomphonemopsis littoralis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Gyrosigma baileyi
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Gyrosigma balticum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Gyrosigma fasciola EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Gyrosigma hummii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Gyrosigma macrum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Gyrosigma peisonis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Gyrosigma reversum
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Gyrosigma tenuissimum
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Gyrosigma variistriatum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Halamphora exigua
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Hantzschia virgata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Haslea cf. amicorum
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Haslea clevei
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Haslea cf. gretharum
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Haslea ostrearia
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Haslea wawrickae
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Lyrella abruptoides EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Lyrella approximata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Lyrella atlantica EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Lyrella clavata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Lyrella clavata v. distenta
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Lyrella clavata v. indica
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Lyrella hennedyi EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Lyrella irroratoides EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Lyrella lyra EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Lyrella praetexta EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia acutiuscula v. elliptica EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia angulata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia apiculata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia baldjikiana EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia binotata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia braunii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia citrus EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia cribrosa EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia crucicula EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia decipiens EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia dicephala EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia elegans EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia erythraea EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia erythraea v. biocellata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia euxina
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia exigua EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia exilis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia fimbriata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia grunowii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia hustedtii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia lanceolata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia minutissima EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia omissa
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia ovalis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia paradoxa EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia pisciculus EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia pumila EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia pumila v. papuarum
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia pumila v. africana EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia pusilla EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia pusilla v. subcapitata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia schmidtii
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia smithii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia splendida EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia subaffirmata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Mastogloia varians EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula carinifera EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula clamans EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula directa EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula fromenterae EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula johanrossii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula longa EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula longissima
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula maculosa EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula normalis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula pelliculosa
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula pennata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula platyventris EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula pseudocomoides EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula pseudocrassirostris EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula ramosissima EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula salinarum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula tripunctata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Navicula yarrensis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia amphibia EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia brittonii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia fonticola EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia frustulum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia insignis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia lanceolata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschiza lesbia
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia linearis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia lionella EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia longissima EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia lorenziana v. subtilis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia martiana EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia obtusa f. parva
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia palea EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia parvula EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia quickiana
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia reversa EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia rhopaloidioides
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia sigma EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia sigma v. intercedens EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia socialis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia spathulata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia ventricosa EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Nitzschia vidovichii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Parlibellus berkeleyi EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Parlibellus delognei EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Parlibellus hamulifer EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Parlibellus tubulosus
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Petrodictyon gemma EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Petroneis granulata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Petroneis plagiostoma EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Petroneis transfuga EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pinnularia gentilis EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pinnularia robusta
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Plagiotropis lepidoptera EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Plagiotropis lepidoptera v. proboscidia EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Plagiotropis seriata
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Planothidium delicatulum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Planothidium ellipticum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Planothidium hauckianum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma acutum
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma aestuarii EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma ambrosianum
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma angulatum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma balticum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma decorum
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma delicatulum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma diverse-striatum
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma elongatum v. gracilis
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma formosum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma intermedium EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma javanicum
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma macrum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma rigidum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pleurosigma rostratum
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Psammodictyon constrictum EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Psammodictyon panduriforme EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pseudo-nitzschia pungens EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Pseudo-nitzschia seriata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Rhopalodia brebissonii
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Rhopalodia gibberula EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Rhopalodia operculata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Stauroneis amphoroides EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Staurophora amphioxys EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Staurophora amphioxys v. producta
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Surirella fastuosa EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Thalassiophysa hyalina
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Trachyneis aspera EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Trachyneis brunii
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Tryblionella acuminata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Tryblionella acuta EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Tryblionella coarctata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Tryblionella granulata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Tryblionella granulata v. hyalina
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Tryblionella marginulata EOL
Bacillariophyceae: Raphid Tryblionella marginulata v. didyma EOL

 

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