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Mosquito control impoundments are areas of salt marsh or mangrove forest that have been diked to allow control of water levels for purposes of mosquito control. Within the dikes, perimeter ditches are flooded artificially in order to control breeding and reproduction of salt marsh mosquitoes without the use of pesticides. Florida's mangroves and salt marshes have historically been problem areas in one important respect: they are preferred breeding habitat for salt marsh mosquitoes (Ochlerotatus taeniorrhynchus and O. sollicitans). These mosquitoes are an important nuisance species that affect the health of humans and domestic animals. Salt marsh mosquitoes do not reproduce by laying their eggs in standing water. Rather, they deposit eggs in the moist soils of high marsh above the water line in tidal wetlands (Provost 1976). Eggs will remain dormant, often for long periods of time, until water levels rise in response to rains or tides.

Eggs hatch in the water and undergo several larval stages before developing into adult mosquitoes within 5 days. In the vicinity of the Indian River Lagoon, concerted efforts aimed at controlling salt marsh mosquitoes began in the mid-1920s (Platt et al. 1943) with construction of miles of hand-dug, parallel ditches. These efforts were not highly successful because of the heavy maintenance required to maintain the ditches, and because tidal effects in the ditched areas were generally of such low amplitude that little mosquito control was effected (Rey and Rutledge 2001).

In the 193's field experiments demonstrated that controlling water levels through impoundment would provide source reduction of mosquito populations by effectively controlling mosquito reproduction (Hull and Dove 1939). However, this experimental program was abandoned as water losses within the impoundment through seepage and evaporation became problematic. Attention then turned toward the use of pesticides such as DDT. However, by the 1950s, concerns over pesticide resistance in insects began to emerge, and the focus of mosquito control again shifted back to source reduction.

The first impoundments in Florida were built in Brevard County in 1954, with other counties soon following. By the 1970's, in excess of 40,000 acres of Florida's coastal wetlands had been impounded (Rey and Kain 1990). The majority of impoundments were constructed at the mean high water level and then flooded year round, closed off from adjacent estuarine waters. Some, however, were allowed to drain during the winter months, but were flooded again as mosquito breeding season approached.

Negative effects of closed impoundments:

Although impoundment for mosquito control is an effective method of controlling mosquito populations, there are often severe environmental impacts on impounded wetlands isolated from adjacent estuaries. Particularly important are issues of water quality degradation, isolation of important fishery species from critical nursery habitats, interruption of nutrient flow between wetlands and estuarine waters, creation of unnaturally high water levels, and hypersaline conditions that may develop in closed impoundments when evaporation of water occurs. Any negative changes in any of these physical parameters may lead to the elimination of vegetation from such areas (Rey and Rutledge 2001).

Water levels:

Excessively high water levels brought on by overflooding impoundments eliminated some species from salt marsh and mangrove communities altogether. While only a thin film of water is enough to prevent oviposition by salt marsh mosquitoes; impoundments are typically flooded to depths of 15 - 50 cm above the surface to compensate for evaporation effects (Rey et al. 1991). In closed impoundments, this practice eliminated some species such as saltwort (Batis maritima), and glasswort (Salicornia bigelovii, and Salicornia virginica), and also impacted black mangroves due to their short pneumatophores not being able to withstand prolonged flooding (Rey and Rutledge 2001).

Water quality:

Closed impoundments showed significant changes in both water quality and soil chemistry. In many areas, isolation of flooded impoundments resulted in decreased dissolved oxygen concentrations and increases in both nitrogen and sulfide concentrations in soils. Some impoundments flooded by use of artesian wells showed ecological turnovers from having communities composed of predominantly halophytic species, to communities characteristic of fresh water habitats. Other impoundments were subject to hypersaline conditions when estuarine waters were pumped in to flood them during warm summer months. Because these impoundments were closed to adjacent waters, lack of flushing and evaporation resulted in extremely high salinities, which caused local extinctions of some species (Rey and Rutlege 2001).

Effects on fish and invertebrates:

Fish species were greatly affected by closed impoundments, with numbers of some species being significantly reduced in species that utilized salt marsh or mangrove areas as nursery grounds (Harrington and Harrington 1961, Snelson 1976, Gilmore et al. 1982, Rey et al 1990). Tarpon (Megalops atlanticus), ladyfish (Elops saurus), common snook (Centropomus undecimalis), mullet (Mugil cephalus), and other species important to commercial and recreation fisheries were adversely impacted by closed impoundments. Marine invertebrates were also impacted by isolation of impounded wetlands, with biodiversity and species abundance changing dramatically in some areas. In some areas, the invertebrate community became more characteristic of freshwater wetlands than marine or estuarine wetlands (Brockmeyer et al. 1997).

Nutrient flow:

In closed impoundments, natural patterns of nutrient flow are interrupted between mangrove areas and adjacent waters. In unaltered systems, nutrients from mangrove leaf fall, which are decomposed into particulate and dissolved forms, are utilized in a variety of ways by many different organisms as mangroves are flushed by tides. In closed impoundments, however, nutrients are never flushed from mangrove areas because there is no connection to estuarine waters, and thus remain confined within impoundments.

Improved Impoundment Strategies:

An improved strategy for impoundments was experimented with as early as the mid-1960s. This involved seasonal flooding of impoundments during peak mosquito breeding season. For the remainder of the year, impoundments were opened via culverts penetrating the dike so that water levels within the impoundment could fluctuate naturally with tides. In 1974, seasonal impoundment was combined with active water management. This strategy of allowing for impoundments to be adequately flushed by tides not only controlled salt marsh mosquitoes, but also helped to retain black mangroves and other vegetation, and allowed the return of juvenile fishes to nursery areas unavailable to them in closed impoundments. This management strategy is currently referred to as Rotational Impoundment Management (RIM).

Under RIM, estuaries retain many of their natural functions, and their primary productivity can rival that of unaltered wetlands (Lahmann 1998, Rey et al. 1990b). Culverts remain open between the impoundment and the estuary from October to May to allow water exchange and use of impoundments by transient fish species and invertebrates. Then, during the summer months, culverts are closed and impoundments flooded to the minimum levels needed to prevent oviposition in salt marsh mosquitoes. Low areas of the surrounding dike, called spillways, insure that water levels do not exceed prescribed levels, thus preventing injury to vegetation. RIM has proven to be an effective strategy for controlling mosquitoes while minimizing serious environmental impacts to estuaries. Data from Rey et al. (1991) shows that RIM is currently the most commonly employed management strategy in 3 of the 5-counties adjacent to the Indian River Lagoon. St. Lucie County has 1,371 hectares (ha) (3386.4 acres) of wetlands under RIM, Brevard County has 1,037 ha (2561.4 acres), and Indian River County has 448 ha (1106.5 acres).

Select a highlighted link below to learn more about that species:

Species Name Common Name Habitat Useage

Mangrove Plants:

Acrostichum danaeifolium Mangrove fern  
Avicennia germinans Black mangrove Upper intertidal
Batis maritima Saltwart  
Borrichia frutescens Sea Ox-eye  
Casuarina equistifolia Australian pine  
Conocarpus erecta Buttonwood, Button mangrove High intertidal, scrub
Halodule wrightii Shoalgrass  
Halophila decipiens Paddlegrass  
Halophila englemanni Star grass  
Halophila johnsonii Johnson's seagrass  
Juncus roemerianus Black needlerush  
Laguncularia racemosa White mangrove Higher intertidal
Limonium carolinianum Sea lavender  
Melaleuca quinquenervia Melaleuca  
Monarda punctata Spotted beebalm  
Rhizophora mangle Red mangrove Lower and middle intertidal
Ruppia maritima Widgeon grass  
Salicornia bigelovii Annual glasswart  
Salicornia virginica Perennial glasswart  
Schinus terebinthifolia Brazilian pepper  
Suaeda linearis Sea blite  
Sueda maritima Sea blite  
Syringodium filiforme Manatee grass  
Thalassia testudinium Turtlegrass  
Verbesina virginica White crownbeard, frostweed  

Mangrove Algae, Diatoms, and Other Protists:

Acanthophora spicifera    
Anacystis montana    
Anadyomena sp.    
Caulerpa sertularoides    
Caulerpa spp.    
Chaetoceros spp.    
Chaetomorpha linum    
Cladophoropsis membranacea    
Cryptoperidinopsis spp.    
Derbesia vaucheriaeformis    
Enteromorpha spp.    
Gonyaulax monilata    
Gracilaria spp.    
Gymnodidium pulchellum    
Halimeda discoidea    
Hypnea spp..    
Lyngbya lutea    
Nitzchia spp.    
Paralia spp.    
Phorinidium crosbyanum    
Polysiphonia sp.    
Scrippsiella subsalsa    
Skeletonema costatum    
Spirulina sp.    
Sturea anastomosans    
Thalssiosira spp.    
Ulva spp.    

Mangrove animals:

Abudefduf saxatilus Sergeant major  
Acetes americanus Aviu shrimp  
Achirus lineatus Lined sole  
Acteocina canaliculata Cahnneled barrel-bubble  
Aiptasia pallida Pale anemone  
Ajaia ajaia Roseate spoonbill  
Alligator mississipensis American alligator  
Alpheus armillatus Banded snapping shrimp  
Alpheus heterochaelis Common snapping shrimp  
Amygdalum papyrum Atlantic papermussel  
Anachis semiplicata Gulf dovesnail  
Anas acuta Northern pintail  
Anas americana American widgeon  
Anas clypeata Northern shoveler  
Anas crecca Green-winged teal  
Anas discors blue-winged teals  
Anas fulvigula Mottled duck  
Anas spp. Dabbling ducks  
Anchoa cubana Cuban anchovy  
Anchoa hepsetus Striped anchovy  
Anchoa lyolepis Dusky anchovy  
Anchoa mitchelli Bay anchovy  
Anguilla rostrata American eel  
Anhinga anhinga Anhinga  
Anomalocardia auberiana Pointed venus  
Apalone ferox Florida softshelled turtle  
Arca imbricata Mossy ark  
Aratus pisoni Mangrove crab  
Archosargus probatocephalus Sheepshead  
Archosargus rhomboidalis Sea bream  
Arctia tonsa Calanoid copepod  
Ardea alba Great egret  
Ardea herodias Great blue heron  
Arius felis Hardhead catfish  
Ascidia curvata Curved tunicate  
Ascidia nigra Black tunicate  
Assiminea spp. (none)  
Astyris lunata Lunar dovesnail  
Atherinomorus stipes Hardhead silverside  
Aythya affinis Lesser scaup  
Aythya americana Redhead duck  
Aythya collaris Ringneck duck  
Aythya valisineria Canvasback  
Bagre marinus Gafftopsail catfish  
Balanus eburneus Ivory barnacle  
Bairdiella chrysoura Silver perch, yellowtail  
Bathygobius curacao Notchtongue goby  
Bathygobius soporator Frillfin goby  
Bittiolum varium grass cerith  
Boonea impressa Impressed odostome  
Botryllus planus Variable encrusting tunicate  
Brachidontes exustus Scorched mussel  
Branchiomma nigromaculata Black spotted fanworm  
Brevoortia smithi menhaden  
Brevoortia tyrannus Atlantic menhaden  
Bubulcus ibis Cattle egret  
Bucephala albeola Bufflehead  
Bulla striata Striate bubble  
Bunodosoma cavernata American warty anemone  
Bunodosoma graniliferum Red warty anemone  
Bursatella leachii pleii Browsing sea hares  
Busycon contrarium Lightning whelk  
Butroides virescens Green backed heron  
Calidris alpina Dunlin  
Calidris mauri Western sandpiper  
Calidris minutilla Least sandpiper  
Calidris spp. Sandpipers  
Callinectes bocourti Red crab  
Callinectes ornatus ornate blue crab  
Callinectes sapidus blue crab  
Callinectes similis lesser blue crab  
Capitella spp. Polychaete worm  
Caranx hippos Crevalle jack  
Carcharhinus leucas bull shark  
Cardinalis cardinalis Cardinal  
Cardisoma guanhumi giant land crab  
Carditamera floridana Broad ribbed carditid  
Cassiopeia frondosa Upside-down jellyfish  
Cassiopeia xamachana Upside-down jellyfish  
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus Willet  
Centropomus parallelus Fat snook  
Centropomus pectinatus Tarpon snook  
Centropomus undecimalis common snook  
Centropristis philadelphica Rock sea bass  
Ceratozona squalida Eastern surf chiton  
Cerithidea scalariformis Ladderhorn snail  
Cerithium muscarum Flyspeck cerith  
Chaetodipterus faber Atlantic spadefish  
Charadrius vociferus Killdeer  
Charadrius semipalmatus Semipalmated plover  
Chasmodes bosquianus Striped blenny  
Chasmodes saburrae Florida blenny  
Chelonia mydas Green sea turtle  
Chicoreus florifer Lace murex  
Chondrilla nucula Chicken liver sponge  
Citharichtys spilopteus Bay whiff  
Clavelina oblonga Oblong tunicate  
Clavelina picta Painted tunicate  
Coccyzus minor Mangrove cuckoo  
Columba leucocephala White-crowed pigeon  
Corophium sp. amphipod  
Costoanachis avara Greedy dovesnail  
Crassostrea virginica Eastern oyster  
Crepidula convexa Convex slippersnail  
Crepidula plana Eastern white slippersnail  
Crocodylus acutus American crocodile  
Cymatium pileare Hairy triton  
Cynoscion nebulosus Spotted seatrout  
Cynoscion regalis Weakfish  
Cyprinodon variegatus sheepshead minnow  
Cypselurus heterurus Atlantic flyingfish  
Dasyatis sabina Atlantic stingray  
Dendroica petechia gundlachi Cuban yellow warbler  
Dendroica discolor paludicola Florida prairie warbler  
Diapterus auratus Irish pompano  
Didemnum conchyliatum White spongy tunicate  
Diodora cayensis Keyhole limpet  
Diopatra spp. Plumed worm,  
Diplodus argenteus Silver porgy  
Diplodus holbrooki Spottail pinfish  
Donax variablilis Variable coquina  
Dormitator maculatus Fat sleeper  
Drymarchon corais couperi Eastern indigo snake  
Ectenascidea turbiniata Mangrove tunicate  
Egretta caerula Little blue heron  
Egretta rufescens Reddish egret  
Egretta thula Snowy egret  
Egretta tricolor Tricolored heron  
Eleotris pisonis Spinycheek sleeper  
Elops saurus Ladyfish  
Epinephelus itajara Goliath grouper, jewfish  
Epinephelus morio Red grouper  
Eretmochelys imbricata Hawksbill sea turtle  
Erotelis smaragdus Emerald sleeper  
Eucinostomus argenteus Spotfin mojarra  
Eucinostomus gula Silver jenny  
Eucinostomus harengulus Tidewater mojarra  
Eucinostomus melanopterus Flagfin mojarra  
Eudocimus albus White ibis  
Eugerres plumieri striped mojarra, goatfish  
Eurypanopeus depressus Depressed mud crab  
Eurytium limnosum Broadback mud crab  
Evorthodus lyricus Lyre goby  
Falco peregrinus Peregrine falcon  
Fasciolaria lilium hunteria Banded tulip  
Felis rufus Bobcat  
Floridichthys carpio Goldspotted killifish  
Fundulus cingulatus Banded topminnow  
Fundulus confluentus Marsh killifish  
Fundulus grandis gulf killifish  
Fundulus seminolis seminole killifish  
Gambusia affinis Mosquitofish  
Gambusia holbrooki Eastern mosquitofish  
Gambusia rhizophorae Mangrove gambusia  
Gerres cinereus Yellowfin mojarra  
Geukensia demisa Ribbed mussel  
Gobiesox strumosus Skilletfish  
Gobioides broussoneti Violet goby  
Gobionellus boleosoma Darter goby  
Gobionellus oceanicus Highfin goby, sharptail goby, slim goby  
Gobionellus smaragdus Emerald goby  
Gobiosoma bosc Naked goby  
Gobiosoma macrodon Tiger goby  
Gobiosoma robustum code goby  
Goniopsis cruentata Spotted mangrove crab, tree crab  
Grandidierella bonnieroides (Amphipod)  
Haemulon chrysargyreum Smallmouth grunt  
Haemulon parra Sailor's choice  
Haemulon plumieri White grunt  
Haemulon sciurus Bluestriped grunt  
Haliaeetus leucocephalus Bald eagle  
Haminoea antillarum Antilles glassy-bubble  
Harengula jaquana Scaled sardine  
Hemiramphus balao Balao  
Henrya morrisoni (none)  
Hippocampus erectus Lined seahorse  
Hippocampus zosterae Dwarf seahorse  
Hippolyte spp. Broken-back shrimp  
Hydroides spp. Feather duster worms  
Hypoatherina harringtonensis Reef silverside  
Ircinia strobilina Stinking pillow sponge  
Ishadium recurvum Hooked mussel  
Isognomon alatus Flat tree oyster  
Isognomon bicolor Bicolor purse oyster  
Labidesthes sicculus Brook silverside  
Lagodon rhomboides Pinfish, sailor's choice  
Lasiurus spp. (bats)  
Leander tenuicornis Brown glass shrimp  
Leiostomus xanthurus Spot  
Lepidochelys kempi Atlantic ridley sea turtle  
Lepisosteus osseus Longnose gar  
Libinia dubia Doubtful spider crab  
Ligia exotica Sea roach  
Limnodromus griseus Short billed dowitcher  
Limulus polyphemus Horseshoe crab  
Littorina angulifera Mangrove periwinkle  
Littorina irrorata Marsh periwinkle  
Lobotes surinamensis Tripletail  
Lolliguncula brevis Atlantic brief squid  
Lontra canadensis River otter  
Lophogobius cyprinoides Crested goby  
Lucania parva Rainwater killifish  
Lupinoblennius nicholsi Highfin blenny  
Lutjanus analis Mutton snapper  
Lutjanus apodus Schoolmaster  
Lutjanus griseus Gray snapper, mangrove snapper  
Lutjanus jocu Dog snapper  
Lutjanus synagris Lane snapper  
Lynx rufus Bobcat  
Lyonsia floridana Florida lyonsia  
Macrobrachium acanthurus Caribbean crayfish  
Malaclemys terrapin rhizophorarum Mangrove diamondback terrapin  
Malaclemys terrapin tequesta Diamondback terrapin  
Trichechus manatus West Indian manatee  
Martesia striata Striate paddock, wood boring martesia  
Megaceryle alcyon Belted kingfisher  
Megalops atlanticus Tarpon  
Melamphus coffeus Coffee bean snail  
Melampus bidentatus Easten melampus  
Melongena corona Crown conch  
Membras martinica Rough silverside  
Menidia beryllina Inland silverside; tidewater silverside  
Menidia peninsulae Penninsula silverside  
Menippe mercenaria Florida stone crab  
Menippe nodifrons Cuban stone crab  
Menticirrhus americanus Southern kingfish  
Mephitis mephitis Spotted skunk  
Mercenaria mercenaria Hard clam, quahog  
Mergus cucullatus Hooded merganser  
Mergus serrator Red-breasted merganser  
Microgobius gulosus Clown goby  
Micropogonias undulatus Croaker  
Mogula occidentalis Sandy sea squirt, western sea squirt  
Mola mola Ocean sunfish  
Monacanthus hispidus Planehead filefish  
Mugil cephalus Striped mullet  
Mugil curema White mullet  
Mycteria americana Wood stork  
Mycteroperca microlpis Gag grouper, grey grouper  
Myiarchus crinitus crinitus Southern crested flycatcher  
Myrophis punctatus Speckled worm eel  
Mytilopsis leucophaeta Dark falsemussel  
Nassarius vibex Bruised nassa  
Neotoma floridana Eastern wood rat  
Nereis succinea Polychaete worm  
Neritina clenchi Clench's nerite  
Neritina virginea Virgin nerite  
Nerodia clarkii Salt marsh snake  
Nerodia fasciata compressicauda Mangrove water snake  
Noetia ponderosa Ponderous ark  
Odocoileus virginianes Whitetail deer  
Odostomia engonia (none)  
Ogilbia cayorum Key brotula  
Oligoplites saurus Leatherjacket  
Onuphis spp. Parchment tube worm, Onuphis worm  
Ophichthus gomesi Shrimp eel  
Opisthonema oglinum Atlantic thread herring  
Opsanus beta Gulf toadfish  
Orchestia spp. (Amphipod)  
Orthropristis chrysoptera Pigfish  
Oxyura jamaicensis Ruddy duck  
Pachygrapsus gracilis Wharf crab  
Pachygrapsus transversus Common shore crab, mottled shore crab  
Palaemontes spp. Grass shrimp  
Pandion haliaetus Osprey  
Panopeus herbstii Common mud crab  
Panulirus argus Spiny lobster  
Parablennius marmoreus Seaweed blenny  
Paraclinus fasciatus Banded blenny  
Parastarte triquetra Brown gemclam  
Pelecanus erythrorhynchos White pelican  
Pelicanus occidentalis Brown pelican  
Penaeus aztecus Brown shrimp  
Penaeus duorarum Pink shrimp  
Penaeus setiferus White shrimp  
Perophora viridis Green colonial tunicate  
Petaloconchus varians Variable wormsnail  
Phalacocorax auritus Double-crested cormorant  
Phallusia nigra Black tunicate  
Phrynelox scaber Splitlure frogfish  
Pisania pusio Miniature trumpet triton, Pisa snail  
Plagusia depressa Spray crab  
Planobella scalare Mesa ram's horn  
Planorbella duryi Seminole ram's horn  
Plegadis falcinellus Glossy ibis  
Pluvialis squatarola Black billed plover  
Podilymbus podiceps Pied-billed grebe  
Poecilia latipinna Sailfin molly  
Pogonias cromis Black drum  
Polyclinum constellatum Starred gelatinous tunicate  
Polygyra cereolus Southern flatcoil  
Polygyra spp. flatcoils  
Prionotus tribulus Bighead searobin  
Procambarus alleni Crayfish  
Procyon lotor Raccoon  
Rallus longirostris Clapper rail  
Rithropanopeus harrisi Harris' mud crab  
Rivulus marmoratus Mangrove rivulus  
Sagitta spp. Arrow worm  
Sardinella aurita Spanish sardine  
Sayella crosseana (none)  
Sciaenops ocellatus Red drum, redfish  
Scorpaena brasiliensis Barbfish  
Selene vomer Lookdown  
Sesarma cinereum Gray marsh crab  
Sesarma curacaoense Curacao marsh crab  
Sesarma ricordi Marbled marsh crab  
Sigmodon hispidus littoralis Hipsid cotton rat  
Sphaeroma sp. Wood-boring crustaceans  
Sphenia antillensis Antillean sphenia  
Sphoeroides nephelus Southern puffer  
Sphoeroides spengleri Bandtail puffer  
Sphoeroides testudineus Checkered puffer  
Sphyraena barracuda Great barracuda  
Sphyraena borealis Northern sennett  
Spindalis zena Stripe-headed tanager  
Spirorbis sp.    
Stellatoma stellata (none)  
Stenonereis martini Polychaete worm  
Strongylura notata Redfin needlefish  
Strongylura timucu Timucu  
Styela plicata Pleated sea squirt introduced
Sylvilagus floridanus Eastern cottontail  
Sylvilagus palustris paludicola Marsh rabbit  
Synalpheus fritzmuelleri Speckled snapping shrimp  
Syngnathus louisianae Chain pipefish  
Syngnathus scovelli Gulf pipefish  
Synodus foetens Inshore lizardfish  
Tagelus plebeius Stout tagelus  
Taphromysis bowmani (none)  
Tedania ignis Fire sponge  
Tellina tampaenis Tampa tellin  
Thais spp. Rock shells  
Tilapia melanotheron Blackchin tilapia  
Trachinotus falcatus Permit  
Trichechus manatus Florida manatee  
Trichiurus lepturus Atlantic cutlassfish  
Trididemnum savignii Savigni's encrusting tunicate  
Trinectes maculatus Hogchoker  
Tringa flavipes Lesser yellowlegs  
Tringa melanoleuca Greater yellowlegs  
Truncatella pulchella Beautiful truncatella  
Tursiops truncates Bottlenosed dolphin  
Turritella spp. Turretsnails  
Tylosurus acus Agujon  
Tylosurus crocodilus Houndfish  
Tyrannus caudifasciatus Loggerhead kingbird  
Tyrannus dominicensis Gray kingbird  
Uca pugilator Sand fiddler crab  
Uca rapax Caribbean fiddler crab  
Uca speciosa Ive's fiddler crab  
Uca thayeri Thayer's fiddler crab  
Urocyon cinereoargenteus Gray fox  
Urosalpinx cinerea Atlantic oyster drill  
Ursus americanus Black bear  
Vallentinia gabriellae Hitch-hiking jellyfish  
Vireo altiloquus Black whiskered vireo  
Vitrinella floridana Florida vitrinella  
 

Further Reading

Brockmeyer, R.E., J.R. Rey, R.W. Virnstein, R.G. Gilmore, Jr., and L. Earnest. 1997. Rehabilitation of impounded estuarine wetlands by hydrologic reconnection to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Journal of Wetlands
Ecology and Management. 4:93-109. 

Carlton, J.M. 1975. A guide to common salt marsh and mangrove vegetation. Florida Marine Resources Publications, No. 6. Carlton, 1977. A survey of selected coastal vegetation communities of Florida. Florida Marine Research Publications, No. 30.

Feller, I. C., Ed. 1996. Mangrove Ecology Workshop Manual. A Field Manual for the Mangrove Education and Training Programme for Belize. Marine Research Center, University College of Belize, Calabash Cay, Turneffe Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC.

Gilmore, R.G. Jr., D.W. Cooke, and C.J. Donahue. 1982. A comparison of the fish populations and habitat in open and closed salt marsh impoundments in east central Florida. Northeast Gulf Science, 5:25-37.

Gilmore, R.G. Jr. and S.C. Snedaker. 1993. Chapter 5: Mangrove Forests. In: W.H. Martin, S.G. Boyce and A.C. Echternacht, eds. Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States: Lowland Terrestrial Communities. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Publishers. New York, NY. 502 pps.

Harrington, R.W. and E.S. Harrington. 1961. Food selection among fishes invading a high subtropical salt marsh; from onset of flooding through the progress of a mosquito brood. Ecology, 42:646-666.

Heald, E.J. and W.E. Odum. 1970. The contribution of mangrove swamps to Florida fisheries. Proceedings Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, 22:130-135.

Heald, E.J., M.A. Roessler, and G.L. Beardsley. 1979. Litter production in a southwest Florida black mangrove community. Proceedings of the Florida Anti-Mosquito Association 50th Meeting. Pp. 24-33.

Hull, J.B. and W.E. Dove. 1939. Experimental diking for control of sand fly and mosquito breeding in Florida saltwater marshes. Journal of Economic Entomology, 32:309-312.

Lahmann, E. 1988. Effects of different hydrologic regimes on the productivity of Rhizophora mangle L. A case study of mosquito control impoundments in Hutchinson Island, St. Lucie County, Florida. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.

Lewis, R.R., III, R.G. Gilmore, Jr., D.W. Crewz, and W.E. Odum. 1985. Mangrove habitat and fishery resources of Florida. In: W. Seaman, Jr. (ed.). Florida Aquatic Habitat and Fishery Resources. American Fisheries Society, Florida Chapter, Kissimmee, FL.

Lugo, A.E. and S.C. Snedaker. 1974. The ecology of mangroves. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 5:39-64.

Lugo, A.E., M. Sell, and S.C. Snedaker. 1976. Mangrove ecosystem analysis. In: Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, B.C. Patten, ed. Pp. 113-145. Academic Press, New York, NY.

Odum, W.E. and C.C. McIvor. 1990. Mangroves. In: Ecosystems of Florida, RL. Myers and J.J. Ewel, eds. Pp. 517 - 548. University of Central Florida Press, Orlando, FL.

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