Other Taxonomic Groupings
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta
Subclass : Asteridae
A member of the mint family, Conradina grandiflora is a perennial, evergreen shrub endemic to Florida.
It grows to 1 - 1.5 m (3.3 - 5.0 feet) in height and has grayish
bark along the woody portions of the stems. Branches are typically
arching or spreading in habit. The aromatic leaves are needle-like and opposite, measuring 1 - 1.5 cm (0.4 -
.6 inches) in length. Upper parts of the leaves are dark green,
shiny, and marked with small black dots. The lower leaf surfaces
may appear white or gray in color due to a dense growth of fine
hairs along the stem and leaves (Nelson 1996).
Blooming occurs throughout the year. Stalked flowers appear
on cymes in groups of 1 - 12. Flowers are
two-lipped and large, measuring approximately 2 cm (0.8 inches) at
the upper lip (Nelson 1996). There
are 4 stamens that arch to the upper lip of the flower. Anthers
lack horns (Wunderlin 1982; Small 1993), and the calyx is somewhat
bent. Flower color is bright blue to lavender, with the lower lip flecked with
tiny dark spots. Fruits are small and nut-like, with a smooth skin and dark blue-black color (Nelson 1996).
Potentially Misidentified Species
There are 5 species of Conradina that grow in the Southeastern U.S. Conradina grandiflora is distinguished by its
large flowers that are bourne on obvious stalks.
HABITAT AND DISTRIBUTION
Conradina grandiflora is endemic to the Atlantic Coastal
Ridge in eastern Florida. Its range extends from approximately
Volusia County to Broward County (Nelson 1996). It has likely
been extirpated from Dade County (Kral 1983).
Conradina grandiflora occurs in all IRL counties in coastal
scrub areas, pine scrub, dunes, or sand hills where soil is deep
and consists of fine sand (Kral 1983; Nelson 1996).
LIFE HISTORY AND POPULATION BIOLOGY
Age, Size, Lifespan
Large-flower rosemary reaches a height of approximately 1 - 1.5m (3.3
- 5.0 feet) and has leaves that measure approximately 1 - 1.5 cm (0.4
- .6 inches) in length (Nelson
Conradina grandiflora is considered rare throughout its
range; however, it is known to be common in some areas where its
coastal scrub habitat has not been disturbed.
No information is available at this time
Conradina grandiflora is associated
with plants typical of coastal scrub or pine scrub, including pines
(Pinus spp.), Lyonia, hollies (Ilex Spp.),
rosemary (Ceratiola sp.), cacti (Opunita spp.),
and oaks (Quercus spp.) (Center for Plant Conservation,
Large-flowered rosemary generally inhabits
coastal backdunes, coastal scrub, maritime hammock, sand pine scrub,
and sandhill areas from Volusia through Broward Counties.
Conradina grandiflora has
no Federal status as an imperiled species, though it is listed as
Threatened in Florida, having been downlisted from its previous
status as Endangered.
It has has been assigned a global rank of G3 (FNAI 2006), which classifies
it as rare and local, or restricted, throughout its range, with
21-100 known occurrences. It is considered vulnerable to extinction
due to habitat alteration or loss, with the primary
threat being continued development of coastal scrub areas for commercial
or residential uses.
are no active management plans for specific preservation of Conradina
grandiflora, and Florida State Law considers endangered and
threatened plants growing on privately owned lands as the property
of the owner. However, there are many incentives granted
to Florida landowners, both large and small, who wish to conserve
the rare and endangered plants and wildlife that occur on their
Center for Plant Conservation.
2006. Plant profile: Conradina grandiflora.
Accessed online at www.centerforplantconservation.org.
June 26, 2006.
Crook, R.W. 1996. Conradina:
Interspecific and Intergeneric Relationships. Tallahassee, FL.
Florida Division of Forestry, Statewide Endangered and Threatened plant
FNAI. 2006. Florida Natural Areas
Inventory website. Tracking list for Brevard County. Accessed online at www.fnai.org.
June 26, 2006.
Kral, R. 1983. A report on some
rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South.
Athens, GA, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service. U.S.
Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Vol. 1.
Nelson, G. 1996. The Shrubs and
Woody Vines of Florida. Pineapple Press, Inc. Sarasota, FL.
Small, J.K. 1993. Manual of the
Southeastern Flora. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC.
Taylor, W.T. 1992. The Guide to
Florida Wildflowers. Taylor Publishing Co., Austin, TX. 320 pp.
Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to
the Vascular Plants of Central Florida. University Presses of Florida, University of Florida,
Gainesville. 175 pp.