Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

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Oculina diffusa colony. Photo courtesy of Florida Marine Research Institute.

Species Name: Oculina diffusa Lamarck, 1816
Common Name: Ivory Bush Coral
Diffuse Ivory Bush Coral
Synonymy: None
  1. TAXONOMY

    Kingdom Phylum/Division Class: Order: Family: Genus:
    Animalia Cnidaria Anthozoa Scleractinia Oculinidae Oculina

    Species Description

    Occulina diffusa generally forms dense colonies up to 12 inches in diameter on short, crooked branches. Color is often a yellow-brown, but this feature can be obscured by other organisms which encrust the coral. This species prefers shallow areas high in sedimentation, to depths of 3 - 75 feet, though it rarely occurs below 40 feet.

  2. HABITAT AND DISTRIBUTION

    Regional Occurrence

    Oculina diffusa occurs in Florida, Bermuda, the Bahamas and the West Indies.

    IRL Distribution

    While it does occur within the Indian River Lagoon, O. diffusa is found primarily on nearshore reefs off east central Florida.

  3. LIFE HISTORY AND POPULATION BIOLOGY

    Age, Size, Lifespan

    Colonies grow to approximately 1 foot in diameter, with branches generally less than 1/2 inch in diameter.

    Abundance

    Oculina diffusa is common in nearshore reefs off Florida, though it can be found within the Indian River Lagoon, especially around inlet areas.

    Locomotion

    Sessile.

    Reproduction

    Single polyps which have been sexually produced settle and attach to a substratum where they bud asexually to give rise to entire colonies.

  4. PHYSICAL TOLERANCES

    Temperature

    Reef temperatures recorded for Oculina diffusa off Fort Pierce, Florida ranged from 13 - 31°C and averaged 24.6°C.

    Salinity

    Salinities recorded for Oculina diffusa off Ft. Pierce, Florida ranged from 26 - 36.4 ppt. In the Indian River Lagoon, salinities for O. diffusa may be as low as 15 ppt.

  5. COMMUNITY ECOLOGY

    Trophic Mode

    O. diffusa feeds on plankton and tiny fish; it may also suspension feed to a smaller extent using mucous films to trap fine particles.

    Habitat

    Oculina diffusa can be found on nearshore limestone ledges of 0.5 - 2.0 m relief. It is also found in the Indian River Lagoon and the Intracoastal Waterway, Typically, it is found at depths of 2 - 3 meters, up to 10 - 20 meters.

  6. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    Special Status

    Habitat Structure

    Notes on Special Status

    O. diffusa colonies provide habitat for a variety of invertebrates and fish species.

    Benefit in the IRL

    Oculina diffusa has a positive economic impact in the Indian River Lagoon by providing habitat for commercially and recreationally important fish and crustaceans, as well as some mollusks and annelids.

  7. REFERENCES

    Beal J, Voss J, Edge S, Cohen L. 2012. Assessment of coral stressors on St. Lucie Reef: Florida's northernmost coral reef. Atlanta, Georgia: US Fish and Wildlife Service, Final Report for State Wildlife Grant. T-19-1, 54p.

    Goreau TF. 1959. The physiology of skeleton formation in corals. I. A method for measuring the rate of calcium deposition by corals under different conditions. Biol Bull 116: 59-75.

Report by: J. Dineen, Smithsonian Marine Station
with thanks to J. Reed, HBOI
Submit additional information, photos or comments to
irl_webmaster@si.edu
Page last updated: July 25, 2001

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