II. HABITAT AND DISTRIBUTION
Luidia clathrata occurs from the Virginia coast to Brazil in the Atlantic Ocean and as far west as Alabama in the Gulf of Mexico (McClintock and Lawrence 1985, Miller and Lawrence 1999). The gray sea star is found at depths from 0-100 m but usually encountered in shallow-waters less than 40 m, on soft bottom habitats (Hendler et. al. 1995, Pomory and Lares 2000).
The gray sea star is common in the IRL and other Florida waters (Miller and Lawrence 1999).
III. LIFE HISTORY AND POPULATION BIOLOGY
Age, Size, Lifespan:
Luidia clathrata is large, growing to 20 - 30 cm in length (Hendler et al. 1995).
Populations can be very dense (McClintock and Lawrence 1985, Watts and Lawrence 1990).
The arms of Luidia clathrata can be lost as a result of predation.
This process can have an affect on the ability of an individual to survive
because the arms are important for locomotion, feeding, energy storage, and
reproduction (Lawrence et al. 1986, Pomory and Lares 2000). Regeneration
of the exposed end of the damaged arm begins by immediately sealing the
damaged area. A new tip appears in approximately one week (Lawrence et al.
1986). The average rate of regeneration in field collected specimens has
been reported to be approximately 3.7 mm per month. Arms appear to
regenerate at a quicker rate until they reached 40-50% of the total
length (Pomory and Lares 2000). In laboratory experiments, although the
rate of regeneration was shown to be a function of food availability,
regeneration did occur even when the animal was starved (Lawrence et al.
Similar to its close relative Luidia senegalensis, L.
clathrata spawns annually (Heinz and Lawrence 1994).
The gray sea star has one larval stage before metamorphosis, a large bipinnaria larva (2 mm long) that is competent (ready for metamorphosis) within in one month.
IV. PHYSICAL TOLERANCES
There are no studies specifically addressing the temperature tolerance of the gray sea star.
Luidia clathrata is reported to tolerate salinities as low as 14 ppt (Hendler et al. 1995).
V. COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
The gray sea star is a forager that can feed on a variety of different taxa including foraminiferans, nematodes, ostracods, gastropods, bivalves, crustaceans, as well as sediment and detritus. In Tampa Bay, Florida Luidia clathrata prefers the bivalve Mulinia lateralis (McClintock and Lawrence 1985). This sea star obtains its food by ingesting sand and mud and then straining this material through oral spines (Hendler et al. 1995). When it is buried, it will invert its stomach to feed on detritus (Hendler et al. 1995).
Adults have a commensal polychaete worm, Podarke obscura Verrill, living in the ambulacral groove (Miller and Lawrence 1999).
Heinz JL and JM Lawrence. 1994. Acclimation of gametes to reduced salinity
prior to spawning in Luidia clathrata (Echinodermata: Asteroidea).
Marine Biology 120:443-446.
Hendler G, Miller JE, Pawson DE, and PM Kier. 1995. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins,
and Allies. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. pg. 68-71.
ITIS. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Available online.
Lawrence JM, Klinger TS, McClintock JB, Watts SA, Chen C-P, Marsh A, and L
Smith. 1986. Allocation of nutrient resources to body components by
regenerating Luidia clathrata (Say) (Echinodermata: Asteroidea).
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 102:47-53.
McClintock JB and JM Lawrence. 1985. Characteristics of foraging in the
soft-bottom benthic starfish Luidia clathrata (Echinodermata:
Asteroidea): prey selectivity, switching behavior, functional responses and
movement patterns. Oecologia 66:291-298.
Miller SR and JM Lawrence. 1999. Gonad and pyloric caeca production
nine-armed starfish Luidia senegalensis off the southwest Florida
gulf coast during the annual reproductive cycle. Bulletin of Marine
Pomory CM and MT Lares. 2000. Rate of regeneration of two arms in the
field and its effect on body components in Luidia clathrata .
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 254:211-230.
Watts SA and JM Lawrence. 1990. The effect of temperature and salinity
interactions on righting, feeding and growth in the sea star Luidia
clathrata . Marine Behavior and Physiology 17:159-165.
Melany P. Puglisi, Smithsonian Marine Station
Submit additional information, photos or comments
Page last updated: October 1, 2008