Blooming occurs throughout the year. Stalked flowers appear
on cymes in groups of 1 - 12. Flowers are
two-lipped and large, measuring approximately 2 cm (0.8 inches) at
the upper lip (Nelson 1996). There
are 4 stamens that arch to the upper lip of the flower. Anthers
lack horns (Wunderlin 1982; Small 1993), and the calyx is somewhat
color is bright blue to lavender, with the lower lip flecked with
tiny dark spots. Fruits
are small and nut-like, with a smooth skin and dark blue-black color
There are 5 species of Conradina that grow in the Southeastern
U.S. Conradina grandiflora is distinguished by its
large flowers that are bourne on obvious stalks.
II. HABITAT AND DISTRIBUTION
Conradina grandiflora is endemic to the Atlantic Coastal
Ridge in eastern Florida. Its range extends from approximately
Volusia County to Broward County (Nelson 1996). It has likely
been extirpated from Dade County (Kral 1983).
Conradina grandiflora occurs in all IRL counties in coastal
scrub areas, pine scrub, dunes, or sand hills where soil is deep
and consists of fine sand (Kral 1983; Nelson 1996).
III. LIFE HISTORY AND POPULATION BIOLOGY
Age, Size, Lifespan:
Large-flower rosemary reaches a height of approximately 1 - 1.5
- 5.0 feet) and has leaves that
measure approximately 1 - 1.5 cm (0.4
- .6 inches) in length (Nelson
Conradina grandiflora is considered rare throughout its
range; however, it is known to be common in some areas where its
coastal scrub habitat has not been disturbed.
V. COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
Conradina grandiflora is associated
with plants typical of coastal scrub or pine scrub, including pines
(Pinus spp.), Lyonia, hollies (Ilex Spp.),
rosemary (Ceratiola sp.), cacti (Opunita spp.),
and oaks (Quercus spp.) (Center for Plant Conservation,
Large-flowered rosemary generally inhabits
coastal backdunes, coastal scrub, maritime hammock, sand pine scrub,
and sandhill areas from Volusia through Broward Counties.
VI. SPECIAL STATUS
Conradina grandiflora has
no Federal status as an imperiled species, though it is listed as
Threatened in Florida, having been downlisted from its previous
status as Endangered.
has has been assigned a global rank of G3 (FNAI 2006), which classifies
it as rare and local, or restricted, throughout its range, with
21-100 known occurrences. It is considered vulnerable to extinction
due to habitat alteration or loss, with the primary
threat being continued development of coastal scrub areas for commercial
or residential uses.
are no active management plans for specific preservation of Conradina
grandiflora, and Florida State Law considers endangered and
threatened plants growing on privately owned lands as the property
of the owner. However, there are many incentives granted
to Florida landowners, both large and small, who wish to conserve
the rare and endangered plants and wildlife that occur on their
Center for Plant Conservation.
2006. Plant profile: Conradina grandiflora.
online at www.centerforplantconservation.org.
June 26, 2006.
Crook, R.W. 1996. Conradina:
Interspecific and Intergeneric
Relationships. Tallahassee, FL.
Florida Division of Forestry,
Statewide Endangered and Threatened plant
FNAI. 2006. Florida Natural Areas
Inventory website. Tracking list for Brevard
County. Accessed online at www.fnai.org.
June 26, 2006.
Kral, R. 1983. A report on some
rare, threatened, or endangered
forest-related vascular plants of the South.
Athens, GA, U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture Forest Service. U.S.
Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service
Technical Publication R8-TP2, Vol. 1.
Nelson, G. 1996. The Shrubs and
Woody Vines of Florida. Pineapple Press,
Inc. Sarasota, FL.
Small, J.K. 1993. Manual of the
Southeastern Flora. The University of North
Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC.
Taylor, W.T. 1992. The Guide to
Florida Wildflowers. Taylor Publishing
Co., Austin, TX. 320 pp.
Wunderlin, R.P. 1982. Guide to
the Vascular Plants of Central Florida. University
Presses of Florida, University of Florida,
Gainesville. 175 pp.
K. Hill, Smithsonian Marine Station
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Page last updated: June 26, 2006