Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory
Mangroves of Florida
The term mangrove is loosely used to describe a wide variety of often unrelated tropical and subtropical trees and shrubs which share common characteristics. Globally, more than 50 species in 16 different families are considered mangroves (Tomlinson 1986). In Florida, the mangrove community consists of three main species of true mangroves: the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, the black mangrove, Avicennia germinans, and the white mangrove, Laguncularia racemosa.
The buttonwood, Conocarpus erectus, is often considered a fourth mangrove species, however, it is classified as a mangrove associate because it lacks any morphological specialization common in true mangrove species, and because it generally inhabits the upland fringe of many mangrove communities.
Red mangroves dominante the shoreline from the upper subtidal to the lower intertidal zones (Davis 1940, Odum and McIvor 1990), and are distinguished from other mangroves by networks of prop roots that originate in the trunk of the tree and grow downward towards the substratum. Red mangroves may attain heights of 25 m, with leaves a glossy, bright green at the upper surface, with somewhat more pale undersides. Trees flower throughout the year, peaking in spring and summer. Propagules of the red mangrove are pencil-shaped and may reach 30 cm in length as they mature on the parent tree (Savage 1972, Carlton 1975).
Black mangroves typically are found growing immediately inland of red mangroves and may reach 20 m high. They are characterized by their conspicuous pneumatophores, vertical branches that may extend upward in excess of 20 cm from cable roots lying below the soil. Pneumatophores develop into extensive networks of fingerlike projections that surround the bases of black mangroves to provide them with proper aeration. The leaves of black mangroves tend to be somewhat narrower than those of red mangroves and are often found encrusted with salt. Black mangroves flower throughout spring and early summer, producing bean-shaped propagules (Savage 1972, Carlton 1975, Odum and McIvor 1990).
White mangroves are more prominent in high marsh areas, typically growing upland of both red and black mangroves. White mangroves are significantly shorter than red or black mangroves, generally reaching 15 m in height. Their leaves are oval in shape, and somewhat flattened. Trees flower in spring and early summer, and produce small propagules which measure only 1 cm.
Mangroves occur in dense, brackish swamps along coastal and tidally influenced, low energy shorelines. In Florida, mangrove forests extend from the Florida Keys to St. Augustine on the Atlantic coast, and Cedar Key on the Gulf coast. Factors such as climate, salt tolerance, water level fluctuation, nutrient runoff, and wave energy influence the composition, distribution, and extent of mangrove communities. Temperature also plays a major role in mangrove distribution. Typically, mangroves occur in areas where mean annual temperatures do not drop below 19°C (66°F) (Waisel 1972). Mangroves are damaged under conditions where temperatures fluctuate more than 10°C within short periods of time, or when they are subject to freezing conditions for even a few hours. Further, Lugo and Patterson-Zucca (1977) showed that stress induced by low temperatures leads to decreasing structural complexity in black mangroves, with tree height, leaf area, leaf size and tree density within a forest all negatively impacted.
In general, mangrove species share 4 important traits that allow them to live successfully under environmental conditions that often exclude other species. Some of these adaptations include: morphological specialization, i.e., aerial prop roots, cable roots, vivipary, and other features that enable mangroves to adapt and thrive in their environments; the ability to excrete or exclude salts; habitat specificity within estuaries, with no extension into upland terrestrial communities; and taxonomic isolation from other generically related species inhabiting upland communities (Tomlinson 1986).
Another adaptation exhibited by mangroves is observed in root aeration. Soils in mangrove areas tend to be fairly axoxic, preventing many types of plants from taking root. Mangroves have adapted to this condition by evolving shallow root systems rather than deep taproots. Red mangroves aerate their roots by way of drop roots and prop roots which develop from lower stems and branches, and penetrate the soil only a few centimeters. Prop roots act to both stabilize the tree, and provide critical aeration to the roots. The above-ground areas of these roots are perforated by many small pores called lenticels that allow oxygen to diffuse first into cortical air spaces called aerenchyma, and then into underground roots (Scholander et al 1955, Odum and McIvor 1990). Water is prevented from entering the tree via lenticels due to their highly hydrophobic nature which allows the red mangrove to exclude water from prop roots and drop roots even during high tides (Waisel 1972).
Black mangroves utilize a different strategy for aeration of root tissues. Black mangroves have cable roots which lie only a few centimeters below the soil surface, and raditate outward from the stem of the tree (Odum and McIvor 1990). A network of erect aerial roots extends upward from the cable roots to penetrate the soil surface. These erect roots, called pneumatophores, contain lenticels and aerenchyma for gas exchange, and may form dense mats around the base of black mangrove trees, with pneumatophores attaining as much as 20 cm or more in height depending on the depth of flood tides (Odum and McIvor 1990).
Mangroves are facultative halophytes, meaning they have the ability to grow in either fresh or salt water depending on which is available. However, despite the fact that mangroves are able to grow in fresh water, they are largely confined to estuaries and upland fringe areas that are at least periodically flooded by brackish or salt water (Gilmore and Snedaker 1993). Mangroves are rarely found growing in upland communities. Simberloff (1983) and Tomlinsion (1986) suggested that one reason mangroves do not develop in strictly freshwater communities is due to space competition from freshwater vascular plants. By growing in saline water, mangroves reduce competitive threat, and thus are able to dominate the areas they grow in.
As facultative halophytes, mangroves not only tolerate, but thrive under saline conditions. They accomplish this either by preventing salts from entering their tissues, or by being able to excrete excess salts that are taken in. Red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle), for example, exclude salts at their root surfaces. This is accomplished nonmetabolically via a reverse osmosis process driven by transpiration at leaf surfaces in which water loss from leaves produces high negative pressure in xylem tissue. This, in turn, allows water to freely diffuse into plant tissues. In addition to excluding salts, red mangroves also have the ability to exclude sulfides from their tissues. This sometimes results in elevated pore water concentrations of sulfides in localities where poor flushing of the mangrove area is common (Carlson and Yarbro 1987).
In contrast to salt exclusion observed in red mangroves, other species such as black mangroves, white mangroves and buttonwoods each utilize salt excretion as a salt-balancing mechanism. Salt concentrations in the sap of these species may be up to ten times higher than in species that exclude salts (Odum and McIvor 1990). Salt-excreting species are able to take in high salinity pore water, and then excrete excess salts using specialized salt glands located in the leaves. Atkinson et al. (1967) suggested this process involved active transport, and thus required energy input from mangroves to drive the process.
Reproduction & Dispersal
Reproductive adaptions in mangroves include vivipary and hydrochory (DEF=dispersal of propagules via water). Red and black mangroves are considered to be viviparous because once seeds are produced, they undergo continuous development rather than entering a resting stage to await germination in appropriate soil. White mangroves are not considered to be viviparous; however, germination in this species often occurs during the dispersal period (Feller 1996). Mangrove reproductive structures, called propagules rather than seeds, germinate and develop embryonic tissue while still attached to the parent. Propagules eventually detach from the parent and float in water for a certain period of time before completing embryonic development (Rabinowitz 1978a, Odum and McIvor 1990) and taking root in new areas. For germination to be completed, propagules must remain in water for extended periods of time. The obligate dispersal period in red mangroves is approximated to be 40 days; in black mangroves, it is estimated at 14 days; and in white mangroves it is estimated at 8 days (Rabinowitz 1978a). This combined strategy of vivipary and long-lived, floating propagules allows not only wide dispersal of mangroves, but also allows for seedlings to establish themselves quickly once appropriate substrata are encountered (Odum and McIvor 1990).
Productivity & Nutrient FLux
Mangrove forests are among the world's most highly productive ecosystems, with gross primary production estimated at 3 - 24 g C/m-2 day -1, and net production estimated at 1 - 12 g C/m-2 day -1 (Lugo and Snedaker 1974, Lugo et al. 1976). Red mangroves have the highest production rates, followed by black mangroves and white mangroves (Lugo et al. 1976). Black mangroves have been shown to have higher respiration rates, and thus lower primary production, in comparison to the red mangroves, due perhaps, to the higher salinity stress red mangrove trees come under (Miller 1972, Lugo and Snedaker 1974).
Mangrove communities, like many tidal wetlands, accumulate nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as heavy metals and trace elements that are deposited into estuarine waters from terrestrial sources, and thus act as nutrient "sinks" for these materials. Mangrove roots, epiphytic algae, bacteria and other microorganisms, as well a wide variety of invertebrates take up and sequester nutrients in their tissues, often for long periods of time. Mangroves also continually act as sources for carbon, nitrogen, and other elements as living material dies and is decomposed into dissolved, particulate and gaseous forms. Tidal flushing then assists in distributing this material to areas where other organisms may utilize it.
Leaf litter, including leaves, twigs, propagules, flowers, small braches and insect refuse, is a major nutrient source to consumers in mangrove systems (Odum 1970). Generally, leaf litter is composed of approximately 68 - 86 % leaves, 3 - 15 % twigs, and 8 - 21 % miscellaneous material (Pool et al. 1975). Leaf fall in Florida mangroves was estimated to be 2.4 dry g m-2 day -1 on average, with significant variation depending on the site (Heald 1969, Odum 1970). Typically, black mangrove leaf fall rates are only those of the red mangrove (Lugo et al. 1980).
fallen, leaves and twigs decompose fairly rapidly, with black mangrove
leaves decomposing faster than red mangrove leaves (Heald et
al. 1979). Areas experiencing high tidal flushing rates,
or which are flooded frequently, have faster rates of decomposition
and export than other areas. Heald (1969) also showed that
decomposition of red mangrove litter proceeds faster under saline
conditions than under fresh water conditions, and also reported
that as the decay process proceeds, nitrogen, protein, and caloric
content within the leaf all increase.
Types of Mongrove Forests
Gilmore and Snedaker (1993) described 5 distinct types of mangrove forests based on water level, wave energy, and pore water salinity: 1) mangrove fringe forests, 2) overwash mangrove islands, 3) riverine mangrove forests, 4) basin mangrove forests, and 5) dwarf mangrove forests.
Mangrove fringe forests occur along protected coastlines and the exposed open waters of bays and lagoons. These forests typically have a vertical profile, owing to full-sun exposure. Red mangroves dominate fringe forests, but when local topology rises toward the uplands, other species may be included in zones above the water line. Tides are the primary physical factor in fringing forests, with daily cycles of tidal inundation and export transporting buoyant materials such as leaves, twigs and propagules from mangrove areas to adjacent shallow water areas. This export of organic material provides nutrition to a wide variety of organisms and provides for continued growth of the fringing forest.
Like fringe forests, mangrove overwash islands are also subject to tidal inundation, and are dominated by red mangroves. The major difference between mangrove fringe forests and overwash islands is that, in the latter, the entire island is typically inundated on each tidal cycle. Because overwash islands are unsuitable for human habitation, and because the water surrounding them may act as a barrier to predatory animals such as raccoons, rats, feral cats, etc., overwash islands are often the site of bird rookeries.
Riverine Mangrove Forests
Riverine mangrove forests occur on seasonal floodplains in areas where natural patterns of freshwater discharge remain intact. Salinity drops during the wet season, when rains cause extensive freshwater runoff; however, during the dry season, estuarine waters are able to intrude more deeply into river systems, and salinity increases as a result. This high seasonal salinity may aid primary production by excluding space competitors from mangrove areas. Further, nutrient availability in these systems becomes highest during periods when salinity is lowest, thus promoting optimal mangrove growth. This alternating cycle of high runoff/low salinity followed by low runoff/high salinity led Pool et al. (1977) to suggest that riverine mangrove forests are the most highly productive of the mangrove communities.
Basin Mangrove Forests
Basin mangrove forests are perhaps the most common community type, and thus are the most commonly altered wetlands. Basin mangrove forests occur in inland depressions which are irregularly flushed by tides. Because of irregular tidal action in these forests, hypersaline conditions are likely to occur periodically. Cintron et al. (1978) observed that the physiological stress induced by extreme hypersalinity may severely limit growth, or induce mortality in mangroves. Black mangroves tend to dominate in basin communities, but certain exotic trees such as Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and Australian pine (Casuarina spp.) are also successful invaders. Basin mangrove forests contribute large amounts of organic debris to adjacent waters, with the majority being exported as whole leaves, particulates, or dissolved organic substances typical of waters containing high tannin concentrations.
Dwarf Mangrove Forests
Dwarf mangrove forests occur in areas where nutrients, freshwater, and inundation by tides are all limited. Any mangrove species can be dwarfed, with trees generally limited in height to approximately 1 meter or less. Dwarf forests are most commonly observed in South Florida, around the vicinity of the Everglades, but occur in all portions of the range where physical conditions are suboptimal, especially in drier transitional areas. Despite their small size and relatively low area to biomass ratios, dwarf mangroves typically have higher leaf litter production rates; thus primary production in dwarf forests is disproportionately high when compared with normal mangrove forests.
Ecological Role of Mangroves
Mangroves perform a vital ecological role providing habitat for a wide variety
of species. Odum et al. (1982) reported 220 fish species, 24 reptile
species, 18 mammal species, and 181 bird species that all utilize mangroves as
habitat during some period of life. Additionally many species, though not
permanent mangrove inhabitants, make use of mangrove areas for foraging,
roosting, breeding, and other activities.
In addition to providing vital nursery and feeding habitat to fishes, mangroves also assist in shoreline protection and stabilization. Prop roots of red mangroves trap sediments in low-energy estuarine waters, and thus assist in preventing coastal erosion. Mangroves also assist in buffering the coastal zone when tropical storms and hurricanes strike. Because mangroves encounter damaging winds and waves before inland areas do, the branches in their canopies, and their many prop roots create friction that opposes and reduces the force of winds and waves. Thus, coastlines are protected from severe wave damage, shoreline erosion and high winds (Gillet1996 In: Feller 1996).
A number of spatial guilds for mangrove-associated species were identified by Gilmore and Snedaker (1993). The sublittoral/littoral guild utilizes the prop root zone of red mangroves associated with fringe forests, riverine forests, and overwash forests. The prop root zone provides sessile filter feeding organisms such as bryozoans, tunicates, barnacles, and mussels with an ideal environment. Mobile organisms such as crabs, shrimp, snails, boring crustaceans, polychaete worms, many species of juvenile fishes, and other transient species also utilize the prop root zone of mangroves as both a refuge and feeding area.
The arboreal canopy guild consists of species able to migrate from the water's surface to the mangrove canopy. Lagoonal snails such as the coffee bean snail (Melamphus coffeus), angulate periwinkle (Littorina anguilifera), and ladderhorn snail (Cerithidea scalariformis) are among the most common of the invertebrate species in this guild. Also common are many species of crustaceans such as the common mangrove crabs Aratus pisoni, Goniopsis cruentata, Pachygrapsus transverses, and Sesarma spp., the isopod Ligea exotica, and many species of insects. Birds also constitute a major component of this spatial guild.
When compared with species that inhabit adjacent seagrass areas, the benthic infaunal guild is generally considered to exist under somewhat impoverished conditions, primarily due to the reducing conditions which often exist in mangrove sediments. Despite this, the benthic infaunal community in mangrove areas is highly productive, especially when microbial activity is taken into consideration.
The upland arboreal guild includes those species associated with tropical hardwoods such as mahogany (Swietenia spp.), cabbage palms (Sabal palmetto), dogwoods (Piscidia spp.), oaks (Quercus spp.), red bay (Persea sp.), gumbo limbo (Bersera simaruba), mastic (Mastichodendron sp.), figs (Ficus spp.) and stoppers (Eugenia spp.). Also included are the various species of bromeliads, orchids, ferns, and other epiphytes that utilize upland trees for support and shelter. Animals of this spatial guild, primarily birds and winged insects, often reside in the upland community, but migrate to feeding areas located in mangroves. Common upland arboreal animals include jays, wrens, woodpeckers, warblers, gnatcatchers, skinks, anoles, snakes, and tree snails.
Finally, the upland terrestrial community is associated with the understory of tropical hardwood forests. The most common members of this guild include various snakes, hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon sp.), raccoons (Procyon lotor), white-tailed deer (Odocoileusus virginianus), bobcats (Felis rufus), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and many insect species. Many of the animals in this spatial guild enter mangrove forests daily for feeding, but return to the upland community at other times.>
The following table is an abbreviated list of mangrove species.
Select highlighted links below to learn more about individual species.
|Scientific Name||Common Name|
|Acrostichum danaeifolium||Mangrove fern|
|Avicennia germinans||Black mangrove|
|Borrichia frutescens||Sea Ox-eye|
|Casuarina equistifolia||Australian pine|
|Halophila englemanni||Star grass|
|Halophila johnsonii||Johnson's seagrass|
|Juncus roemerianus||Black needlerush|
|Laguncularia racemosa||White mangrove|
|Limonium carolinianum||Sea lavender|
|Monarda punctata||Spotted beebalm|
|Rhizophora mangle||Red mangrove|
|Ruppia maritima||Widgeon grass|
|Salicornia bigelovii||Annual glasswart|
|Salicornia virginica||Perennial glasswart|
|Schinus terebinthifolia||Brazilian pepper|
|Suaeda linearis||Sea blite|
|Sueda maritima||Sea blite|
|Syringodium filiforme||Manatee grass|
|Verbesina virginica||White crownbeard|
Algae & Other Protists
|Acanthophora spicifera||Red alga|
|Anadyomena sp.||Green alga|
|Caulerpa sertularoides||Green feather alga|
|Caulerpa spp.||Green alga|
|Chaetomorpha linum||Green alga|
|Cladophoropsis membranacea||Green alga|
|Derbesia vaucheriaeformis||Green alga|
|Enteromorpha spp.||Green algae|
|Gracilaria spp.||Red alga|
|Halimeda discoidea||Green alga|
|Hypnea spp..||Red algae|
|Polysiphonia sp.||Red algae|
|Ulva spp.||Green algae|
|Abudefduf saxatilus||Sergeant major|
|Acetes americanus||Aviu shrimp|
|Achirus lineatus||Lined sole|
|Acteocina canaliculata||Cahnneled barrel-bubble|
|Aiptasia pallida||Pale anemone|
|Ajaia ajaia||Roseate spoonbill|
|Alligator mississipensis||American alligator|
|Alpheus armillatus||Banded snapping shrimp|
|Alpheus heterochaelis||Common snapping shrimp|
|Amygdalum papyrum||Atlantic papermussel|
|Anachis semiplicata||Gulf dovesnail|
|Anas acuta||Northern pintail|
|Anas americana||American widgeon|
|Anas clypeata||Northern shoveler|
|Anas crecca||Green-winged teal|
|Anas discors||blue-winged teals|
|Anas fulvigula||Mottled duck|
|Anas spp.||Dabbling ducks|
|Anchoa cubana||Cuban anchovy|
|Anchoa hepsetus||Striped anchovy|
|Anchoa lyolepis||Dusky anchovy|
|Anchoa mitchelli||Bay anchovy|
|Anguilla rostrata||American eel|
|Anomalocardia auberiana||Pointed venus|
|Apalone ferox||Florida softshelled turtle|
|Arca imbricata||Mossy ark|
|Aratus pisoni||Mangrove crab|
|Archosargus rhomboidalis||Sea bream|
|Arctia tonsa||Calanoid copepod|
|Ardea alba||Great egret|
|Ardea herodias||Great blue heron|
|Arius felis||Hardhead catfish|
|Ascidia curvata||Curved tunicate|
|Ascidia nigra||Black tunicate|
|Astyris lunata||Lunar dovesnail|
|Atherinomorus stipes||Hardhead silverside|
|Aythya affinis||Lesser scaup|
|Aythya americana||Redhead duck|
|Aythya collaris||Ringneck duck|
|Bagre marinus||Gafftopsail catfish|
|Balanus eburneus||Ivory barnacle|
|Bairdiella chrysoura||Silver perch, yellowtail|
|Bathygobius curacao||Notchtongue goby|
|Bathygobius soporator||Frillfin goby|
|Bittiolum varium||grass cerith|
|Boonea impressa||Impressed odostome|
|Botryllus planus||Variable encrusting tunicate|
|Brachidontes exustus||Scorched mussel|
|Branchiomma nigromaculata||Black spotted fanworm|
|Brevoortia tyrannus||Atlantic menhaden|
|Bubulcus ibis||Cattle egret|
|Bulla striata||Striate bubble|
|Bunodosoma cavernata||American warty anemone|
|Bunodosoma graniliferum||Red warty anemone|
|Bursatella leachii pleii||Browsing sea hares|
|Busycon contrarium||Lightning whelk|
|Butroides virescens||Green backed heron|
|Calidris mauri||Western sandpiper|
|Calidris minutilla||Least sandpiper|
|Callinectes bocourti||Red crab|
|Callinectes ornatus||ornate blue crab|
|Callinectes sapidus||blue crab|
|Callinectes similis||lesser blue crab|
|Capitella spp.||Polychaete worm|
|Caranx hippos||Crevalle jack|
|Carcharhinus leucas||bull shark|
|Cardisoma guanhumi||giant land crab|
|Carditamera floridana||Broad ribbed carditid|
|Cassiopeia frondosa||upside-down jellyfish|
|Cassiopeia xamachana||Upside-down jellyfish|
|Centropomus parallelus||Fat snook|
|Centropomus pectinatus||Tarpon snook|
|Centropomus undecimalis||common snook|
|Centropristis philadelphica||Rock sea bass|
|Ceratozona squalida||Eastern surf chiton|
|Cerithidea scalariformis||Ladderhorn snail|
|Cerithium muscarum||Flyspeck cerith|
|Chaetodipterus faber||Atlantic spadefish|
|Chardrius semipalmatus||Semipalmated plover|
|Chasmodes bosquianus||Striped blenny|
|Chasmodes saburrae||Florida blenny|
|Chelonia mydas||Green sea turtle|
|Chicoreus florifer||Lace murex|
|Chondrilla nucula||Chicken liver sponge|
|Citharichtys spilopteus||Bay whiff|
|Clavelina oblonga||Oblong tunicate|
|Clavelina picta||Painted tunicate|
|Coccyzus minor||Mangrove cuckoo|
|Columba leucocephala||White-crowed pigeon|
|Costoanachis avara||Greedy dovesnail|
|Crassostrea virginica||Eastern oyster|
|Crepidula convexa||Convex slippersnail|
|Crepidula plana||Eastern white slippersnail|
|Crocodylus acutus||American crocodile|
|Cymatium pileare||Hairy triton|
|Cynoscion nebulosus||Spotted seatrout|
|Cyprinodon variegatus||sheepshead minnow|
|Cypselurus heterurus||Atlantic flyingfish|
|Dasyatis sabina||Atlantic stingray|
|Dendroica petechia gundlachi||Cuban yellow warbler|
|Dendroica discolor paludicola||Florida prairie warbler|
|Diapterus auratus||Irish pompano|
|Didemnum conchyliatum||White spongy tunicate|
|Diodora cayensis||Keyhole limpet|
|Diopatra spp.||Plumed worm,|
|Diplodus argenteus||Silver porgy|
|Diplodus holbrooki||Spottail pinfish|
|Donax variablilis||Variable coquina|
|Dormitator maculatus||Fat sleeper|
|Drymarchon corais couperi||Eastern indigo snake|
|Ectenascidea turbiniata||Mangrove tunicate|
|Egretta caerula||Little blue heron|
|Egretta rufescens||Reddish egret|
|Egretta thula||Snowy egret|
|Egretta tricolor||Tricolored heron|
|Eleotris pisonis||Spinycheek sleeper|
|Epinephelus itajara||Goliath grouper|
|Epinephelus morio||Red grouper|
|Eretmochelys imbricata||Hawksbill sea turtle|
|Erotelis smaragdus||Emerald sleeper|
|Eucinostomus argenteus||Spotfin mojarra|
|Eucinostomus gula||Silver jenny|
|Eucinostomus harengulus||Tidewater mojarra|
|Eucinostomus melanopterus||Flagfin mojarra|
|Eudocimus albus||White ibis|
|Eugerres plumieri||striped mojarra, goatfish|
|Eurypanopeus depressus||Depressed mud crab|
|Eurytium limnosum||Broadback mud crab|
|Evorthodus lyricus||Lyre goby|
|Falco peregrinus||Peregrine falcon|
|Fasciolaria lilium hunteria||Banded tulip|
|Floridichthys carpio||Goldspotted killifish|
|Fundulus cingulatus||Banded topminnow|
|Fundulus confluentus||Marsh killifish|
|Fundulus grandis||gulf killifish|
|Fundulus seminolis||seminole killifish|
|Gambusia holbrooki||Eastern mosquitofish|
|Gambusia rhizophorae||Mangrove gambusia|
|Gerres cinereus||Yellowfin mojarra|
|Geukensia demisa||Ribbed mussel|
|Gobioides broussoneti||Violet goby|
|Gobionellus boleosoma||Darter goby|
|Gobionellus oceanicus||Highfin goby|
|Gobionellus smaragdus||Emerald goby|
|Gobiosoma bosc||Naked goby|
|Gobiosoma macrodon||Tiger goby|
|Gobiosoma robustum||code goby|
|Goniopsis cruentata||Spotted mangrove crab|
|Haemulon chrysargyreum||Smallmouth grunt|
|Haemulon parra||Sailor's choice|
|Haemulon plumieri||White grunt|
|Haemulon sciurus||Bluestriped grunt|
|Haliaeetus leucocephalus||Bald eagle|
|Haminoea antillarum||Antilles glassy-bubble|
|Harengula jaquana||Scaled sardine|
|Hippocampus erectus||Lined seahorse|
|Hippocampus zosterae||Dwarf seahorse|
|Hippolyte spp.||Broken-back shrimp|
|Hydroides spp.||Feather duster worms|
|Hypoatherina harringtonensis||Reef silverside|
|Ircinia strobilina||Stinking pillow sponge|
|Ishadium recurvum||Hooked mussel|
|Isognomon alatus||Flat tree oyster|
|Isognomon bicolor||Bicolor purse oyster|
|Labidesthes sicculus||Brook silverside|
|Lagodon rhomboides||Pinfish, sailor's choice|
|Leander tenuicornis||Brown glass shrimp|
|Lepidochelys kempi||Atlantic ridley sea turtle|
|Lepisosteus osseus||Longnose gar|
|Libinia dubia||Doubtful spider crab|
|Ligia exotica||Sea roach|
|Limnodromus griseus||Short billed dowitcher|
|Limulus polyphemus||Horseshoe crab|
|Littorina angulifera||Mangrove periwinkle|
|Littorina irrorata||Marsh periwinkle|
|Lolliguncula brevis||Atlantic brief squid|
|Lontra canadensis||River otter|
|Lophogobius cyprinoides||Crested goby|
|Lucania parva||Rainwater killifish|
|Lupinoblennius nicholsi||Highfin blenny|
|Lutjanus analis||Mutton snapper|
|Lutjanus griseus||Gray snapper, mangrove snapper|
|Lutjanus jocu||Dog snapper|
|Lutjanus synagris||Lane snapper|
|Lyonsia floridana||Florida lyonsia|
|Macrobrachium acanthurus||Caribbean crayfish|
|Malaclemys terrapin rhizophorarum||Mangrove diamondback terrapin|
|Malaclemys terrapin tequesta||Diamondback terrapin|
|Trichechus manatus||West Indian manatee|
|Martesia striata||Striate paddock, wood boring martesia|
|Megaceryle alcyon||Belted kingfisher|
|Melamphus coffeus||Coffee bean snail|
|Melampus bidentatus||Easten melampus|
|Melongena corona||Crown conch|
|Membras martinica||Rough silverside|
|Menidia beryllina||Inland silverside; tidewater silverside|
|Menidia peninsulae||Penninsula silverside|
|Menippe mercenaria||Florida stone crab|
|Menippe nodifrons||Cuban stone crab|
|Menticirrhus americanus||Southern kingfish|
|Mephitis mephitis||Spotted skunk|
|Mercenaria mercenaria||Hard clam, quahog|
|Mergus cucullatus||Hooded merganser|
|Mergus serrator||Red-breasted merganser|
|Microgobius gulosus||Clown goby|
|Mogula occidentalis||Sandy sea squirt, western sea squirt|
|Mola mola||Ocean sunfish|
|Monacanthus hispidus||Planehead filefish|
|Mugil cephalus||Striped mullet|
|Mugil curema||White mullet|
|Mycteria americana||Wood stork|
|Mycteroperca microlpis||Gag grouper, grey grouper|
|Myiarchus crinitus crinitus||Southern crested flycatcher|
|Myrophis punctatus||Speckled worm eel|
|Mytilopsis leucophaeta||Dark falsemussel|
|Nassarius vibex||Bruised nassa|
|Neotoma floridana||Eastern wood rat|
|Nereis succinea||Polychaete worm|
|Neritina clenchi||Clench's nerite|
|Neritina virginea||Virgin nerite|
|Nerodia clarkii||Salt marsh snake|
|Nerodia fasciata compressicauda||Mangrove water snake|
|Noetia ponderosa||Ponderous ark|
|Odocoileus virginianes||Whitetail deer|
|Ogilbia cayorum||Key brotula|
|Onuphis spp.||Parchment tube worm, Onuphis worm|
|Ophichthus gomesi||Shrimp eel|
|Opisthonema oglinum||Atlantic thread herring|
|Opsanus beta||Gulf toadfish|
|Oxyura jamaicensis||Ruddy duck|
|Pachygrapsus gracilis||Wharf crab|
|Pachygrapsus transversus||Common shore crab|
|Palaemontes spp.||Grass shrimp|
|Panopeus herbstii||Common mud crab|
|Panulirus argus||Spiny lobster|
|Parablennius marmoreus||Seaweed blenny|
|Paraclinus fasciatus||Banded blenny|
|Parastarte triquetra||Brown gemclam|
|Pelecanus erythrorhynchos||White pelican|
|Pelicanus occidentalis||Brown pelican|
|Penaeus aztecus||Brown shrimp|
|Penaeus duorarum||Pink shrimp|
|Penaeus setiferus||White shrimp|
|Perophora viridis||Green colonial tunicate|
|Petaloconchus varians||Variable wormsnail|
|Phalacocorax auritus||Double-crested cormorant|
|Phallusia nigra||Black tunicate|
|Phrynelox scaber||Splitlure frogfish|
|Pisania pusio||Miniature trumpet triton, Pisa snail|
|Plagusia depressa||Spray crab|
|Planobella scalare||Mesa ram's horn|
|Planorbella duryi||Seminole ram's horn|
|Plegadis falcinellus||Glossy ibis|
|Pluvialis squatarola||Black billed plover|
|Podilymbus podiceps||Pied-billed grebe|
|Poecilia latipinna||Sailfin molly|
|Pogonias cromis||Black drum|
|Polyclinum constellatum||Starred gelatinous tunicate|
|Polygyra cereolus||Southern flatcoil|
|Prionotus tribulus||Bighead searobin|
|Rallus longirostris||Clapper rail|
|Rithropanopeus harrisi||Harris' mud crab|
|Rivulus marmoratus||Mangrove rivulus|
|Sagitta spp.||Arrow worm|
|Sardinella aurita||Spanish sardine|
|Sarotherodon melanotheron||Blackchin tilapia|
|Sciaenops ocellatus||Red drum|
|Sesarma cinereum||Gray marsh crab|
|Sesarma curacaoense||Curacao marsh crab|
|Sesarma ricordi||Marbled marsh crab|
|Sigmodon hispidus littoralis||Hipsid cotton rat|
|Sphaeroma sp.||Wood-boring crustaceans|
|Sphenia antillensis||Antillean sphenia|
|Sphoeroides nephelus||Southern puffer|
|Sphoeroides spengleri||Bandtail puffer|
|Sphoeroides testudineus||Checkered puffer|
|Sphyraena barracuda||Great barracuda|
|Sphyraena borealis||Northern sennett|
|Spindalis zena||Stripe-headed tanager|
|Spirorbis sp.||Serpulid worm|
|Stenonereis martini||Polychaete worm|
|Strongylura notata||Redfin needlefish|
|Styela plicata||Pleated sea squirt|
|Sylvilagus floridanus||Eastern cottontail|
|Sylvilagus palustris paludicola||Marsh rabbit|
|Synalpheus fritzmuelleri||Speckled snapping shrimp|
|Syngnathus louisianae||Chain pipefish|
|Syngnathus scovelli||Gulf pipefish|
|Synodus foetens||Inshore lizardfish|
|Tagelus plebeius||Stout tagelus|
|Taphromysis bowmani||Mysid shrimp|
|Tedania ignis||Fire sponge|
|Tellina tampaenis||Tampa tellin|
|Thais spp.||Rock shells|
|Trichechus manatus||Florida manatee|
|Trichiurus lepturus||Atlantic cutlassfish|
|Trididemnum savignii||Savigni's encrusting tunicate|
|Tringa flavipes||Lesser yellowlegs|
|Tringa melanoleuca||Greater yellowlegs|
|Truncatella pulchella||Beautiful truncatella|
|Tursiops truncatus||Bottlenosed dolphin|
|Tyrannus caudifasciatus||Loggerhead kingbird|
|Tyrannus dominicensis||Gray kingbird|
|Uca pugilator||Sand fiddler crab|
|Uca rapax||Caribbean fiddler crab|
|Uca speciosa||Ive's fiddler crab|
|Uca thayeri||Thayer's fiddler crab|
|Urocyon cinereoargenteus||Gray fox|
|Urosalpinx cinerea||Atlantic oyster drill|
|Ursus americanus||Black bear|
|Vallentinia gabriellae||Hitch-hiking jellyfish|
|Vireo altiloquus||Black whiskered vireo|
|Vitrinella floridana||Florida vitrinella|
References & Further Reading
Atkinson, MR, Findlay, GP, Hope, AB, Pitman, MG, Sadler, HDW & HR West. 1967. Salt regulation in the mangroves Rhizophora mangle Lam. and Aerialitis annulata R. Australian J. Biol. Sci. 20: 589-599.
Brockmeyer, RE, Rey, JR, Virnstein, RW, Gilmore, Jr., RG & L Earnest. 1997. Rehabilitation of impounded estuarine wetlands by hydrologic reconnection to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. J. Wetlands Ecol. Manag. 4: 93-109.
Carlson, PR & LA Yarbro. 1987. Physical and biological control of mangrove pore water chemistry. In: Hook, DD et al., eds. The Ecology and Management of Wetlands. 112-132. Croom Helm. London, UK.
Carlton, JM. 1974. Land-building and stabilization by mangroves. Env. Conserv. 1: 285-294.
Carlton, JM. 1975. A guide to common salt marsh and mangrove vegetation. Florida Marine Resources Publications 6.
Carlton,JM. 1977. A survey of selected coastal vegetation communities of Florida. Florida Marine Research Publications 30.
Cintron, G, Lugo, AE, Pool, DJ, & G Morris. 1978. Mangroves of arid environments in Puerto Rico and adjacent islands. Biotropica. 10: 110-121.
Feller, IC, ed. 1996. Mangrove Ecology Workshop Manual. A Field Manual for the Mangrove Education and Training Programme for Belize. Marine Research Center, University College of Belize. Calabash Cay, Turneffe Islands. Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC.
Gilmore, Jr., RG, Cooke, DW & CJ Donahue. 1982. A comparison of the fish populations and habitat in open and closed salt marsh impoundments in east central Florida. NE Gulf Sci. 5: 25-37.
Gilmore, Jr., RG & SC Snedaker. 1993. Chapter 5: Mangrove Forests. In: Martin, WH, Boyce, SG & AC Echternacht, eds. Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States: Lowland Terrestrial Communities. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Publishers. New York, NY. 502 pp.
Harrington, RW & ES Harrington. 1961. Food selection among fishes invading a high subtropical salt marsh; from onset of flooding through the progress of a mosquito brood. Ecology. 42: 646-666.
Heald, EJ. 1969. The production of organic detritus in a south Florida estuary. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Miami. Coral Gables, FL.
Heald, EJ & WE Odum. 1970. The contribution of mangrove swamps to Florida fisheries. Proc. Gulf Caribbean Fish. Inst. 22: 130-135.
Heald, EJ, Roessler, MA & GL Beardsley. 1979. Litter production in a southwest Florida black mangrove community. Proc. FL Anti-Mosquito Assoc. 50th Meeting. 24-33.
Hull, JB & WE Dove. 1939. Experimental diking for control of sand fly and mosquito breeding in Florida saltwater marshes. J. Econ. Entomology. 32: 309-312.
Lahmann, E. 1988. Effects of different hydrologic regimes on the productivity of Rhizophora mangle L. A case study of mosquito control impoundments in Hutchinson Island, St. Lucie County, Florida. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Miami. Coral Gables, FL.
Lewis, III, RR, Gilmore, Jr., RG, Crewz, DW & WE Odum. 1985. Mangrove habitat and fishery resources of Florida. In: Seaman, Jr., W, ed. Florida Aquatic Habitat and Fishery Resources. American Fisheries Society, Florida Chapter. Kissimmee, FL.
Lugo, AE. 1980. Mangrove ecosystems: successional or steady state? Biotropica. 12:65-73.
Lugo, AE & SC Snedaker. 1974. The ecology of mangroves. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 5: 39-64.
Lugo, AE, Sell, M & SC Snedaker. 1976. Mangrove ecosystem analysis. In: Patten, BC, ed. Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology. 113-145. Academic Press. New York, NY. USA
Lugo, AE & Patterson-Zucca, C. 1977. The impact of low temperature stress on mangrove structure and growth. Trop. Ecol. 18: 149-161.
Miller, PC. 1972. Bioclimate, leaf temperature, and primary production in red mangrove canopies in South Florida. Ecology. 53: 22-45.
Odum, WE. 1970. Pathways of energy flow in a south Florida estuary. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Miami. Coral Gables, FL.
Odum, WE & CC McIvor. 1990. Mangroves. In: Myers, RL & JJ Ewel, eds. Ecosystems of Florida. 517 - 548. University of Central Florida Press. Orlando, FL.
Odum, WE, McIvor, CC & TJ Smith III. 1982. The ecology of the mangroves of south Florida: a community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services. FWS/OBS-81-24.
Odum, WE & EJ Heald. 1972. Trophic analyses of an estuarine mangrove community. Bull. Mar. Sci. 22: 671-738.
Onuf, CP, Teal, JM & I Valiela. 1977. Interactions of nutrients, plant growth and herbivory in a mangrove ecosystem. Ecology. 58: 514-526.
Platts, NG, Shields, SE & JB Hull. 1943. Diking and pumping for control of sand flies and mosquitoes in Florida salt marshes. J. Econ. Entomology. 36: 409-412.
Pool, DJ, Lugo, AE & SC Snedaker.1975. Litter production in mangrove forests of southern Florida and Puerto Rico. Proc. Int. Symp. Biol. Manag. Mangroves. 213-237. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, FL.
Pool, DJ, Snedaker, SC & AE Lugo. 1977. Structure of mangrove forests in Florida, Puerto Rico, Mexico, and Central America. Biotropica. 9: 195-212.
Provost, MW. 1976. Tidal datum planes circumscribing salt marshes. Bull. Mar. Sci. 26: 558-563.
Rabinowitz, D. 1978a. Dispersal properties of mangrove propagules. Biotropica. 10: 47-57.
Rabinowitz, D. 1978b. Early growth of mangrove seedlings in Panama, and a hypothesis concerning the relationship of dispersal and zonation. J. Biogeography. 5: 113-133.
Rey, JR & T Kain. 1990. Guide to the salt marsh impoundments of Florida. Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory Publications. Vero Beach, FL.
Rey, JR, Schaffer, J, Tremain, D, Crossman, RA & T Kain. 1990. Effects of reestablishing tidal connections in two impounded tropical marshes on fishes and physical conditions. Wetlands. 10: 27-47.
Rey, JR, Peterson, MS, Kain, T, Vose, FE & RA Crossman. 1990. Fish populations and physical conditions in ditched and impounded marshes in east-central Florida. N.E. Gulf Science. 11: 163-170.
Rey, JR, Crossman, RA, Peterson, M, Shaffer, J & F Vose. 1991. Zooplankton of impounded marshes and shallow areas of a subtropical lagoon. FL Sci. 54: 191-203.
Rey, JR, Crossman, RA, Kain, T & J Schaffer. 1991. Surface water chemistry of wetlands and the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. J. FL Mosquito Con. Assoc. 62: 25-36.
Rey, JR, Kain, T & R Stahl. 1991. Wetland impoundments of east-central Florida. FL Sci. 54: 33-40.
Rey, JR & CR Rutledge. 2001. Mosquito Control Impoundments. Document # ENY-648, Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available online at: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
Savage, T. 1972. Florida mangroves as shoreline stabilizers. Florida Department of Natural Resources Professional Papers 19.
Scholander, PF, van Dam, L & SI Scholander. 1955. Gas exchange in the roots of mangroves. Amer. J. Botany. 42: 92-98.
Simberloff, DS. 1983. Mangroves. In: Janzen, DH., ed. Costa Rican Natural History. 273-276. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, IL.
Snedaker, SC. 1989. Overview of mangroves and information needs for Florida Bay. Bull. Mar. Sci. 44: 341-347.
Snedaker, S C & AE Lugo. 1973. The
role of mangrove ecosystems in the maintenance of environmental
quality and a high productivity of desirable fisheries. Final
report to the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife in fulfillment
of Contract no. 14-16-008-606. Center for Aquatic Sciences.
Snelson, FF. 1976. A study of a diverse coastal ecosystem on the Atlantic coast of Florida. Vol. 1: Ichthyological Studies. NGR-10-019-004 NASA. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. USA.
Thayer, GW, Colby, DR & WF Hettler Jr. 1987. Utilization of the red mangrove prop roots habitat by fishes in South Florida. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 35: 25-38.
Tomlinson, PB. 1986. The botany of mangroves. Cambridge University Press. London.
Waisel, Y. 1972. The biology of halophytes. Academic Press. New York, NY.
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